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Μάρκος Αυρήλιος

Τρίτη, 4 Δεκεμβρίου 2012

The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, [1878] 13

TREATISE XV.

Leprosy.
 1
Indications of Leprosy—Inspection—Uncleanness—Boils—Burnings—Scalls—Time—White Hair—Quickflesh—Black Hair—Spots—Pronouncing—Inclosing—Cleanness and Uncleanness—Yellow Hair—Shaving—The Beard—Garments—Buildings—Warp—Woof—Bobbins—Webs—Articles liable to Leprosy—Houses—Stones, Wood, and Mud—Inspection—Plaster—Breaking down—Causing Uncleanness—Cleansing—The Birds—The Cedar—Sacrifices—Bathing—Applying the Blood—The Offering.

CHAPTER I.

1. The indications of leprosy are two, and these again (contain) four. "First, there is a spot white as snow; 2 next to it one like the lime of the temple, and its swelling like the shell of an egg; next to it one like white wool." The words of Rabbi Meier. But the Sages say, "the swelling is like white wool, and second to it a spot like the shell of an egg."
2. "What of the mixture in the snow?" "Its colour is like wine mingled in snow." "What of the mixture in lime?" "Its colour is like blood mingled with milk." The words of Rabbi Ishmael. R. Akiba said, "that which is reddish in each is like wine mingled in water, save that in the snow is bright, but that in the lime is duller than it."
3. These four indications are reckoned together in pronouncing "clean," in pronouncing "fretting," and in "inclosing." 3 They are reckoned together for inclosing that which is
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stationary at the close of the first week; in pronouncing clean that which is stationary at the close of the second week; in pronouncing unclean, that in which there is produced quickflesh or white hair at once, or at the close of the first week, or at the close of the second week, even after the pronouncing clean. They are reckoned together for pronouncing unclean, when the spreading is produced, at the close of the first week, or at the close of the second week, even after the pronouncing clean; in pronouncing unclean that which has turned all white, after being pronounced clean; in pronouncing clean that which has turned all white, after being pronounced unclean, or after being inclosed. These are the indications of leprosy on which all leprosy depends.
4. Rabbi Chanina, the suffragan of the priests, said, "the indications of leprosy are sixteen." R. Dosa the son of Harcinus, said, "the indications of leprosy are thirty-six." Akabia, the son of Mahallalel, said, "seventy-two." Rabbi Chanina, the suffragan of the priests, said, "priests do not examine lepers on the day after the Sabbath, lest their week fall on the Sabbath, nor on the second day, lest their second week fall on the Sabbath. And buildings are not examined on the third day, lest their third week fall on the Sabbath." Rabbi Akiba said, "they must examine at all times." Should the day for examination fall on the Sabbath, they can postpone it till after the Sabbath, and so it may be more convenient, or more inconvenient.
5. "How more convenient?" "In the leprosy there was white hair, and the white hair went away. The hairs were white and became black; one was white and one black; both became black. They were long and became short, one was long and one short, and both became short. A boil has come close to both or to one of them, a boil has encompassed both or one of them, or the boil has divided them, or the quickflesh of the boil, or a burning, or the quickflesh of a burning, or a freckled spot, or there was in it quickflesh, and the quickflesh went away. It was square and became round or elongated. It was inclosed and it became one-sided, it was contracted and it became dispersed, and the
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boil came and entered into its midst, it encompassed it, it divided it, or the boil diminished it, or the quickflesh of the boil, or the burning, or the quickflesh of the burning, or the freckled spot. It was spreading, and the spreading went away, or its source went away, or it began to diminish, and there is not left in both of them a measure of three lentils square. 1 The boil and the quickflesh of the boil, and the burning and the quickflesh of the burning, and the freckled spot dividing between the source and the place of spreading disappeared; these symptoms are convenient."
6. "How more inconvenient?" "The leprosy had no white hair, and white hair sprang up; the hairs were black and became white; one was black and one was white, and both became white; they were short and became long; one was short and one was long, and both became long; a boil has come close to both, or to one of them; a boil has encompassed both, or one of them; or the boil has divided it, or the quickflesh of the boil; or the burning, or the quick-flesh of the burning; and the freckled spot; and they went away; there was no quickflesh, and quickflesh was produced; it was round or elongated, and it became square; it was one-sided, and it filled up the inclosure; it was dispersed and became contracted; and the boil came and entered into its midst; it encompassed it, it divided it, or the boil diminished it, or the quickflesh of the boil; the burning or the quickflesh of the burning; and the freckled spot; and they went away; there was no spreading of the leprosy, and spreading was produced in it; the boil and the quickflesh of the boil, the burning and the quickflesh of the burning; and the freckled spot dividing between the source and the place of its spreading disappeared; these symptoms are inconvenient."

Footnotes

267:1 This treatise on leprosy (the divine stroke) is held in the highest estimation by the Jews, and is considered one of the most important in the Talmud.
267:2 This is explained to mean "deeper in appearance than the skin, like the sunshine near the shade." I have seen a case of leprosy in Jerusalem precisely answering to this description.
267:3 i.e. with a mark round the affected spot.
269:1 The gris, the measure mentioned in the original, equals three lentils square, or thirty-six hairs in breadth.

CHAPTER II.

"If the white spot looked dim in a German, and the dim white in an Æthiopian?" Rabbi Ishmael said, "for the
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children of Israel I am atoning, they are as boxwood neither black nor white, but intermediate." R. Akiba said, "painters have colours, by which they paint faces black and white and intermediate. One introduces a medium colour, and encircles it outside, and the face appears intermediate." R. Judah said, "the indications of leprosy are for convenience, but not for inconvenience; the German is to be inspected in his flesh for convenience, and the Æthiopian as intermediate for convenience." But the Sages say, "both are intermediate."
2. Lepers are not to be inspected in the early morning nor in the 1 evening; nor inside a house, nor on a cloudy day, lest the dim appear white, nor at noon, lest the white appear dim. "When are they to be inspected?" "In the third, fourth, fifth, seventh, eighth, and ninth hours." The words of Rabbi Meier. R. Judah said, "in the fourth, fifth, eighth, and ninth hours."
3. The priest blind of one eye, or with the sight of his eyes dim, must not inspect lepers; as is said, "Wheresoever the priest looketh." 2 "Is the house dark?" "Windows are not to be opened in it to inspect its leprosy."
4. "How is the leper 3 to be inspected?" "The man is to be inspected in the attitude of digging and pressing olives. The woman is to be inspected as though kneading and suckling her child, as though weaving in a standing attitude, to the elbow of the right hand." Rabbi Judah said, "even to the left hand as though spinning flax."
According to the proportion of leprosy observed is to be the shaving.
5. A man may inspect all leprosy save his own. Rabbi Meier said, "also not the leprosy of his relations." A man may absolve all vows save his own. R. Judah said, "also not the vows of his wife between herself and others." A man may inspect all the firstborn save his own.

Footnotes

270:1 Literally between the evenings.
270:2 Lev. xiii. 12.
270:3 The Rabbis reckoned lepers as persons dead, and they counted with them the blind, and the poor, and those who have no children.

CHAPTER III.

1. Every one afflicted with leprosy is legally unclean, excepting foreigners and the sojourning stranger. Every one is eligible for the inspection of leprosy, but the declaration of uncleanness and of cleansing belongs to the priest. They say to him "pronounce unclean;" and he says "unclean." "Pronounce clean;" and he says "clean." Two leprosies are not inspected at once, whether in one man or in two men; but the priest inspects the first, and he incloses it, or pronounces it fretting, or legally frees him; and then he turns to the second. They do not inclose that which is already inclosed, and they do not pronounce fretting, that which is pronounced fretting, they do not inclose that which is pronounced fretting; and they do not pronounce fretting, that which is inclosed. But in the beginning, or in the end of the seven days, him who is inclosed the priest can inclose; him who is pronounced fretting, the priest can pronounce fretting. He can inclose and he can free. He can declare "fretting" and he can declare "free."
2. To the bridegroom in whom leprosy has appeared the Sages permit the seven days of the feast, be the leprosy in himself, in his house, or in his clothing. And so also in a festival, they permit to him all the days of the feast.
3. The skin of the flesh is unclean in two weeks, and with three marks; with white hair, and quickflesh, and spreading. With white hair and quickflesh in the beginning and in the end of the first week, and in the end of the second week, even after being pronounced free. And with spreading in the end of the first week, and in the end of the second week even after being pronounced free, and it renders the leper unclean for two weeks which make thirteen days.
4. The boil and the burning cause uncleanness for one week with two marks, with white hair and with spreading. With white hair in the beginning or in the end of the week, even after being pronounced free. And in spreading in the end of the week, even after being pronounced free.
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[paragraph continues] And they render the leper unclean for one week which has seven days.
5. Scalls 1 cause uncleanness in two weeks with two marks, with thin yellow hair, and with spreading. With thin yellow hair in the beginning, or in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week, even after being pronounced free. And in spreading, in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week, even after being pronounced free. And they cause uncleanness in two weeks which have thirteen days.
6. The scall on the back of the bald head, or on the bald forehead causes uncleanness in two weeks with two marks, with quickflesh and with spreading. With quickflesh in the beginning or in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week, even after being pronounced free. And with spreading in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week, even after being pronounced free. And they cause uncleanness in two weeks which have thirteen days.
7. Garments cause uncleanness in two weeks, and with three marks—greenish, reddish, and spreading. Greenish and reddish (marks) in the beginning, or in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week even after being pronounced free. And in spreading, in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week, even after being pronounced free. And they cause uncleanness in two weeks which have thirteen days.
8. Houses cause uncleanness in three weeks and with three marks—greenish, reddish, and spreading. Greenish and reddish (marks) in the beginning, or in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week, or in the end of the third week, even after being pronounced free. And spreading in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week, or in the end of the third week, even after being pronounced free. And they cause uncleanness in three weeks which have nineteen days. For leprosy there is no separation for less than one week, or for more than three weeks.

Footnotes

272:1 In the head.

CHAPTER IV.

1. There exists in the white hair what is not in the spreading, and there exists in the spreading what is not in the white hair, because the white hair renders unclean from the first, and renders unclean in every whitish colour, and there is no mark of cleansing in it. There exists in the spreading, that spreading renders unclean, however little, and renders unclean in all leprosy external to (the source) of leprosy, which is not the case in white hair.
2. There exists in the quickflesh, what is not in spreading, and there exists in spreading, what is not in quickflesh; because the quickflesh renders unclean from the first and renders unclean in every colour, and there is no mark of cleansing in it. There exists in the spreading, that spreading renders unclean, however little, and renders unclean in all leprosy external to (the source) of leprosy, which is not (the case) with quickflesh.
3. There exists in white hair what is not in quickflesh, and there exists in quickflesh what is not in white hair, because white hair renders unclean in the boil and in the burning, in conjunction, and in diffusion, in inclosing and when there is no inclosing. There exists in quickflesh, that the quickflesh renders unclean in the bald head and in the bald forehead, whether it be unusual or usual, and it retards that which is not usually all white. And it renders unclean in every colour, which is not the case with white hair.
4. "When two hairs have their roots blackish, and tops whitish?" "They are clean." "When the roots are whitish and the tops blackish?" "They are unclean." "How much should be the whiteness?" R. Meier said, "however little." R. Simon said, "sufficient for the scissors to take hold of them." "If it be one below and divided above and it look like two?" "It is clean." "A white spot in which there is white hair, or black hair?" "It is unclean." We are not to doubt that the place of the black hair diminishes the white spot, since there is no substance in it.
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5. "A white spot of three lentils square, with a line proceeding from it?" "If there be in it two hairs’ breadth it binds it to white hair and to spreading, but not to quick-flesh." "Two white spots with a line proceeding from one to the other?" "If there be in it two hairs’ breadth, they are united, but if not, they are not united."
6. A white spot of three lentils square, in which there is quickflesh of the size of a lentil, and white hair in the quickflesh, and the quickflesh has gone away, is unclean by reason of the white hair. If the white hair has gone away it is unclean by reason of the quickflesh. R. Simon pronounces it "clean, because the white spot is unchanged." "If the white spot with its quickflesh is the measure of three lentils square, and the white hair is in the white spot?" "If the quickflesh disappear it is unclean by reason of the white hair." "If the white hair disappear?" "It is unclean by reason of the quickflesh." R. Simon pronounces it "clean, because it was not as usual, that the spot was of the measure of three lentils square." But he admits, if there be in the place white hair of the measure of three lentils square, that the leper is unclean.
7. A white spot, in which there is quickflesh and spreading, though the quickflesh has gone away, is unclean by reason of the spreading. "Has the spreading disappeared?" "It is unclean by reason of the quickflesh, and so with white hair and spreading." "If it has gone away and returned in the end of the seven days?" "It is just as it was (at first)." After being pronounced free, it must be inspected as in the beginning. "If it were bright white and became dim, or dim and became bright white?" "It is just as it was at first, excepting that there be no diminution of the four indications." "Did it contract and spread?" "Did it spread and contract?" R. Akiba pronounces it "unclean." But the Sages pronounce it "clean."
8. "A white spot of three lentils square which has spread about half three lentils square, and gone away from the source about half three lentils square?" R. Akiba said, "it
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must be inspected as in the beginning," but the Sages pronounce it "clean."
9. "A white spot as large as three lentils square, which has spread as much as half three lentils square, and somewhat more, and has gone away from the source about half three lentils square?" R. Akiba pronounces it "unclean" but the Sages pronounce it "clean." "A white spot as large as three lentils square which has spread as much as three lentils square, and somewhat more; and the source has gone away from it?" R. Akiba pronounces it "unclean," but the Sages say "it must be inspected as in the beginning."
10. "A white spot as large as three lentils square which has spread as much as three lentils square, and in the spreading there is produced quickflesh, or white hair and the source has gone away from it?" R. Akiba pronounces it "unclean," but the Sages say "it must be inspected as in the beginning." "A white spot as large as half three lentils square in which there is nothing there is afterwards produced a white spot as large as half three lentils square and in it one hair?" "It must be inclosed." "A white spot as large as half three lentils square and in it one hair, there is afterwards produced a white spot as large as half three lentils square, and in it one hair?" "It must be inclosed." "A white spot as large as half three lentils square, and in it two hairs—there is afterwards produced a white spot as large as half three lentils square, and in it one hair?" "It must be inclosed."
11. "A white spot as large as half three lentils square in which there is nothing,—there is afterwards produced a white spot as large as half three lentils square, in which there are two hairs?" "It is positive uncleanness, because it is said, if the white spot be before the white hair it is unclean, and if the white hair be before the white spot it is clean. But if there be a doubt it is unclean." But R. Joshua disagreed with this decision.

CHAPTER V.

1. "Every doubt in leprosy is cleanness except this one just mentioned, and still another, and what is it?" "One in whom there was a white spot as large as three lentils square, and the priest inclosed it. In the end of the seven days, it is as large as a Selah. 1 It is doubtful if that be it. It is doubtful if another one has come underneath it. It is unclean."
2. "The leper is decidedly unclean with white hair, the white hair has gone away, and white hair has returned, and so with quickflesh and with spreading, in the beginning, or in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week, or after being pronounced free?" "It is as it was (at first)." "He is decidedly unclean with quickflesh, and the quickflesh has gone away and quickflesh has returned, and so with white hair, and with spreading, in the beginning, or in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week, or after being pronounced free?" "It is as it was (at first)." "He is decidedly unclean with spreading, the spreading has gone away and spreading has returned, and so with white hair in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week, or after being pronounced free?" "It is as it was at first."
3. "Is there concealed hair?" Akabia, son of Mahallalel, pronounced it "unclean," but the Sages pronounced it "clean." "What is concealed hair?" "Where there is a white spot and in it white hair, the spot has gone away and left in its place white hair, and it returned." Akabia, son of Mahallalel, pronounced it "unclean;" but the Sages pronounce it "clean." Said R. Akiba, "I admit that he is clean." "Which is the concealed hair?" "Where there is a white spot as large as three lentils square, and in it two hairs, and there went away a space as large as half three lentils square, and left white hair in the place of the white spot, and it returned." The Sages said to him, "as the words of Akabia have been nullified, so thy words cannot be acknowledged."
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4. Every doubt about leprosy in the beginning is cleanness, so long as it is not identified with uncleanness. When it is identified with uncleanness, the doubt is uncleanness. "How?" "Two came to a priest; in one there was a white spot as large as three lentils square, and in the other a spot as large as a dollar. In the end of the seven days the white spot in one was as large as a dollar, and in the other the spot was as large as a dollar, and the priests knew not in which was the spreading—if it be in the one man or in the two men?" "It is cleanness." R. Akiba, said "in one man it is uncleanness, in two men it is clean."
5. When the leper is identified with uncleanness, doubt about him is uncleanness. "How?" "Two lepers came to a priest; on one was a spot as large as three lentils square, and on the other, also, a spot as large as a dollar. In the end of the seven days, in one the spot was as large as a dollar, and somewhat more, and in the other the spot was as large as a dollar and somewhat more?" "Both are unclean, even though both returned to be the size of a dollar. Both are unclean until they returned to be as three lentils square." This is what the Sages said "from the leper's identification with uncleanness; the doubt about him is uncleanness."

Footnotes

276:1 Dollar or Shekel.

CHAPTER VI.

1. The extent of the white spot is as three Cicilian lentils square, the space of the three lentils square is nine lentils, the space of the lentils is four hairs, it follows that the extent of the spot is thirty-six hairs.
2. "The white spot as large as three lentils square in which there is quickflesh as large as a lentil?" "If the white spot increased, it is unclean, if it diminished it is clean. If the quickflesh increased, it is unclean, if it diminished it is clean."
3. "A white spot as large as three lentils square in which there is quickflesh less than a lentil?" "If the white spot increased it is unclean, if it diminished, it is clean. If
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the quickflesh increased, it is unclean, if it diminished, R. Meier pronounced it 'unclean,' but the Sages pronounced it 'clean,' because the leprosy does not spread towards the middle."
4. "A white spot larger than three lentils square, in which there is quickflesh larger than a lentil?" "If they increased or diminished, they are unclean, excepting that they did not diminish ought from the stated measure."
5. "A white spot as large as three lentils square, and quickflesh as large as a lentil encompasses it, and outside of the quickflesh there is a white spot?" "The inner one is to be inclosed, and the outer one is to be decided unclean." Said R. José, "no quickflesh is a mark of uncleanness on the outside, because the white spot is in the midst." "If it diminished and went away?" Raban Gamaliel said, "if it commenced to diminish from the inside, it is a sign of spreading for the inside, and the outside white spot is clean, and if it diminished from the outside, the outside is clean, and the inside is to be inclosed." R. Akiba said, "whether it diminished inside or outside it is clean."
6. Said R. Simon, "when is it so?" "When it is precisely as a lentil." "If it be more than a lentil?" "The overplus is a mark of spreading to the inside, and the outside is unclean." "If there be in it a freckled spot less than a lentil?" "It is a sign of spreading to the inside, but it is no mark of spreading to the outside."
7. There are twenty-four ends of members in man in which there is no uncleanness from quickflesh—the tips of the fingers and toes, the tips of the ears, and the tip of the nose, and still one more, and the paps of a woman. Rabbi Judah said, "also of a man." R. Eliezer said, "even wens and excrescences are not unclean from any quickflesh."
8. These are the places in man in which there is no uncleanness from a white spot, the inside of the eye, the inside of the ear, the inside of the nose, the inside of the mouth, the wrinkles, and the wrinkles of the neck beneath the pap and the armpit, the sole of the foot, and the nails, the head and the beard, the boil and the burning, and the inflammation.
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[paragraph continues] Issues cause no uncleanness in leprosy, and they are not identified with leprosy, and leprosy spreads not in them, and quickflesh produces no uncleanness in them, and they are no hindrance to one who is turned all white. If the head and beard turn to baldness, the boil and the burning and the inflammation produce a scab. These cause uncleanness in leprosy, but they are not identified with leprosy, and it is not leprosy (though it) spreads in them; and quickflesh produces no uncleanness, but they prove a hindrance to one who is turned all white. The head and the beard before hair has grown up, and excrescences in the head and beard are judged by the priest to be natural skin of flesh.

CHAPTER VII.

1. These white spots are clean which existed before the giving of the law 1 in the foreigner, in the proselyte, in the child before birth, in the wrinkle which has filled out, in the head and the beard, in the boil and quickflesh, and in the inflammation and issue. The head and the beard which have turned to baldness, the boil and the quickflesh and the inflammation which have formed a scab, are clean. "A white spot in the head and the beard so long as hair has not sprung up, or the hair has sprung up and turned to baldness; the boil and quickflesh and inflammation, so long as they have not formed a scab, or they have formed a scab, and are cured?" R. Eliezer, the son of Jacob, pronounces them "unclean," since their beginning and their end are unclean, but the Sages pronounce them "clean."
2. The indications of leprosy have changed either for convenience, or for inconvenience. "How for convenience?" "It was like snow, and became in colour as the lime of the temple; it was as white wool, and it became like an egg-shell. It became the swelling, or bright white." "How for inconvenience?" "It was as an egg-shell, and became in colour
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like white wool; it was as the lime of the temple and became like snow." R. Eliezer, son of Azariah, pronounces it "clean." R. Eleazar Hasma said, "if (it changed) for convenience it is clean, but if for inconvenience, it must be inspected as in the beginning." R. Akiba said, "whether (it changed) for convenience or for inconvenience, it must be inspected as in the beginning."
3. "A white spot in which there is nothing in the beginning?" "In the end of the first week it must be inclosed. In the end of the second week, after it is pronounced free, it shall remain free." Whilst the priest is about to inclose it or pronounce it free, if marks of uncleanness are produced in the man he shall be decided unclean. A white spot in which are marks of uncleanness the priest shall decide unclean. "Whilst the priest is about to decide the man unclean, and the marks of uncleanness are gone away, in the beginning or in the end of the first week?" "It must be inclosed." In the end of the second week, after the priest pronounces him free, he shall remain free.
4. "If he rooted out the marks of uncleanness, and burned the quickflesh?" "He transgressed a negative command." "What about cleansing?" "Before he came to the priest he is clean. After being decided unclean, he is unclean." Said R. Akiba, "I questioned Ramban Gamaliel and Rabbi Joshua as they were going to Gadvod, during the time of inclosure what is it?" They said to me, "we have not heard, but we have heard, that before he came to the priest he is clean, after being decided unclean he is unclean." "I began to bring to them arguments, that whether he stands before the priest, or during his inclosure, he is clean, until the priest pronounce him unclean." "When may he be cleansed?" R. Eliezer said, "if there be produced in him another leprosy, and he is pronounced clean from it." But the Sages say, "when the leprosy is grown 1 all over him, or when his white spot diminishes to be less than three lentils square."
5. He who has a white spot, and it is cut away, is clean.
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[paragraph continues] "If it be intentionally cut away?" R. Eliezer said, "he will not be clean until another leprosy be produced in him, and he be cleansed from it." But the Sages say, "he will not be clean until the leprosy be grown all over him."

Footnotes

279:1 The law was prospective, not retrospective; "When a man shall have" etc. (Lev xiii. 2).
280:1 Or flowered all over.

CHAPTER VIII.

1. He who has turned all white after uncleanness, is clean. If the extremities of his members took another turn he is unclean, till his white spot diminish to be less than three lentils square. From the time of his cleansing he is unclean. If his extremities have taken another turn, he is unclean until his white spot return as it was before.
2. "A white spot as large as three lentils square, in which there is quickflesh as large as three lentils square, if it grew all over him and afterwards the quickflesh in it went away, or the quickflesh went away and afterwards it grew all over him?" "He is clean." "If quickflesh be produced in him?" "He is unclean." "If white hair be produced in him?" R. Joshua pronounced him "unclean," but the Sages pronounced him "clean."
3. A white spot in which there is white hair, if it grew all over him, even though white hair continued in its place?" "He is clean." "A white spot in which there is spreading, if it grew all over him?" "He is clean." And all these things when the extremities of the members took a turn, cause uncleanness. "If it grew only in part?" "He is unclean." "If it grew all over him?" "He is clean."
4. Every growth in the extremities of the members which in its growth cleansed the man, renders, in its changing, the man again unclean. All changes in the extremities of the members which in their change rendered unclean the man who was clean; while they are covered they are clean, but while they are discovered they are unclean, even though they changed an hundred times.
5. Every fresh part which becomes unclean with the plague of the white spot, prevents its growth all over the
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leper, so that he could be pronounced clean. Every part which does not become unclean with the plague of the white spot, does not prevent its growth all over him. "How?" "It has grown all over him, but not in the head and beard, in the boil, in the quickflesh, and in the inflammation, and in issues; the head and beard changed and became bald, the boil and quickflesh and inflammation have formed a scab—he is clean. It has grown all over him, but not in the measure of half a lentil, next to the head and beard, to the boil, to the quickflesh, and to the inflammation; the head and beard changed to baldness, the boil and quickflesh and inflammation formed a scab, even though the place of the quickflesh formed a white spot—he is unclean, until it be grown all over him."
6. "Two white spots, one unclean and one clean, have grown from one to the other, and afterwards have grown all over him?" "He is clean." "They have grown in the upper lip, in the lower lip, in two fingers, in the two eyelids, even though they coalesce one with the other, and they appear as one?" "He is clean." "If it have grown all over him, but not in the freckled spot?" "He is unclean." "The extremities of his members have turned to a kind of freckled spot?" "He is clean." "The extremities of his members have turned to a freckled spot, in size less than a lentil?" R. Meier pronounces him "unclean." But the Sages say, "a freckled spot less than a lentil is a mark of uncleanness in the beginning, but no mark of uncleanness in the end."
7. "He came (to the priest) all white?" "The priest must inclose the place." "If white hair be produced in him?" "He is to be decided unclean." "Have the two hairs turned black, or one of them? Have both of them become shorter, or one of them? Has the boil inclined towards both of them, or to one of them? Has the boil encompassed both, or one of them? Or has the boil divided them, or the quickflesh of the boil, the burning or the quickflesh of the burning, and the freckled spot?" "Or has there been produced in him quickflesh or white hair?" "He
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is unclean." "There was not produced in him quickflesh nor white hair?" "He is clean." And all these marks when the extremities of the members again changed in appearance, are reckoned as they were before. "If the white spot grew in part of him?" "He is unclean." "If it grew all over him?" "He is clean."
8. "If the white spot grew all over him at once, during his cleansing?" "He is unclean." "But if it grew all over him during his uncleanness?" "He is clean." "If he be declared clean during his inclosure?" “He is declared free from uncovering his head and from rending his garments, and from shaving, and from “the birds.” 1 "If he be declared clean during his being decided unclean?" "He is indebted for all these." Both these men equally cause uncleanness in their entrance into (a house).
9. "If he came (to the priest) all white, and there was in him quickflesh as large as a lentil, if it have grown all over him, and afterwards the extremities of his members have changed?" R. Ishmael said, "so that the extremities of the members changed to a large white spot." R. Eliezer, son of Azariah, said, "so that the extremities of the members changed to a small white spot, he is unclean."
10. There is in the showing of the leprosy to the priest gain; and there is in the showing of it loss. "How?" "He who was decided unclean, and the marks of uncleanness went away, there was not sufficient time to show them to the priest until they again grew all over him. He is clean." "When he showed them to the priest?" "He is unclean." "A white spot in which there is nothing, he did not take time to show it to the priest, until it grew all over him?" "He is unclean." "When he showed it to the priest?" "He is clean."

Footnotes

283:1 Lev, xiv. 4.

CHAPTER IX.

1. The boil and the burning cause uncleanness in one week with two marks, with white hair and with spreading.
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[paragraph continues] "What is a boil?" "If one receive a knock with wood, or. stone, or oil dregs, or the waters of Tiberias, everything which is not through fire. This is the boil." "What is a burning?" "If one receive a burn from live coals, or hot ashes, everything which is from fire. This is the burning."
2. The boil and the burning are not identified one with the other, and they do not spread from one to the other, and they do not spread in the skin of the flesh, and the skin of the flesh does not spread in them. "If they become a running sore?" "They are clean." "If they form a skin like the peeling of garlic?" "This is the scab of the boil mentioned in the law." "They are changed and healed even though in their place there be a scar?" "They are judged to be skin of flesh."
3. They questioned R. Eliezer, "if there sprung up in the palm of the hand a white spot like a dollar, 1 and in its place the scab of a boil?" He said to them, "it must be inclosed." They said to him, "wherefore—it is not suitable for the growth of white hair—and as for spreading, it is not spreading, and as for quickflesh it does not render it unclean?" He said to them, "perhaps it will contract and spread." They said to him, "but if its space be only as large as three lentils square?" He said to them, "I have not heard it." R. Judah, the son of Bethirah, said to him, "I will study it." He said to him, "if thou dost study it for the confirmation of the opinions of the Sages, yes." He said to him, "perhaps there will be produced another boil outside of it, and this boil will spread to it." He replied to him, "thou art a great sage, because thou hast confirmed the words of the Sages."

Footnotes

284:1 Or selah.

CHAPTER X.

1. The stalls cause uncleanness in two weeks and with two marks. With thin yellow hair, and with spreading. "With thin yellow hair diminishing in shortness." The
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words of Rabbi Akiba. R. Johanan, the son of Nuri, said, "hair even when long." Said R. Johanan, the son of Nuri, "what means the language, this staff is thin, this rod is thin, thin diminishing in shortness, or thin diminishing in length?" R. Akiba said to him, "before that you give a proof from the rod, let us have a proof from the hair; the hair of so and so is thin, thin diminishing in shortness, not thin diminishing when the hairs are long."
2. "Thin yellow hair causes uncleanness in adhesion or in dispersion, in inclosure or when not inclosed, when it is unusual or when it is usual." 1 The words of R. Judah. R. Simon said, "it causes no uncleanness, save when it is unusual." R. Simon said, "and this is the decision." "What if the hair be white?" "White hair does not apply, because no other hair delivers from its influence, and it causes no uncleanness, except it be unusual." "Why is it thin yellow hair?" "Because other hair delivers from its influence." Is it not the teaching that no uncleanness is produced except it be unusual? R. Judah, said "every place which needs to be unusual," the law says, "unusual." But of the scall it is said, there is not in it "yellow hair." 2 It causes uncleanness whether it be unusual or usual.
3. Sprouting dark hair delivers from the effect of yellow hair, and from the effects of spreading both in adhesion and in dispersion, in inclosure or when it is not inclosed. "But if former hair can deliver from the effects of yellow hair, and from the effects of spreading, in adhesion or in dispersion, or in inclosure, and it cannot deliver if it be grown from one side only, until it be distant from the usual standing hair, a space of two hairs?" "If one of the hairs be yellow and one black, one yellow and one white, they do not deliver the sufferer from the scall."
4. Yellow hair which preceded the scall is clean. R. Judah pronounces it "unclean." R. Eliezer, the son of Jacob, said, "it causes no uncleanness and it does not deliver the sufferer from the scall." R. Simon said, "everything
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which is not a mark of uncleanness in the scall, is in the scall a mark of cleanness."
5. "How is the scall shaven?" "They shave outside of it and leave two hairs near to it, that it may be known if it spread." "Was the man declared unclean with yellow hair, has the yellow hair gone away and again returned, and so likewise with the spreading in the beginning, or in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week, after being pronounced free?" "He is as he was before." "Was he declared unclean with the spreading, has the spreading gone, and spreading again returned, and so likewise with yellow hair in the end of the first week, or in the end of the second week, after being pronounced free?" "He is as he was before."
6. "Suppose two scalls beside each other and a line of hair divides a space between them?" "If the hair fall from one place he is unclean. If from both places he is clean." "How much must be the falling of the hair?" "The space of two hairs." "Has it fallen from one place?" "It must be the measure of three lentils square, he is unclean."
7. "Suppose two scalls one within the other, and a line of hair dividing a space between them?" "If the hair have fallen from one place, he is unclean, if it have fallen from both places, he is clean." "How much must be the falling?" "The space of two hairs." "Has it fallen in one place the measure of three lentils square?" "He is clean."
8. Whosoever has a scall and within it there is yellow hair, he is unclean. "Is black hair produced in it?" "He is clean even though the black hair went away again." Rabbi Simon, the son of Judah, said on the authority of Rabbi Simon, "every scall which is once pronounced clean, there is no uncleanness in it for ever after." Rabbi Simon said, "every yellow hair which is once pronounced clean, has no uncleanness for ever after."
9. "Whosoever had a scall the measure of three lentils square, and the scall covered his whole head?" "He is clean." "The head and the beard do not legally hinder each other." The words of R. Judah. R. Simon said, "they do
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legally hinder each other." Rabbi Simon said, "and the teaching is, that if the skin of his face and the skin of his flesh have another thing, which divides between them, they do hinder each other." The head and beard, there is nothing that divides between them. "Is not this the teaching that they do hinder each other?" "The head and beard do not adhere each to the other, and they do not legally spread in leprosy each to the other." "What is the beard?" "The hair from the division of the cheek-bone to the covering of the windpipe."
10. The bald head and bald forehead cause uncleanness in two weeks and with two marks, with quickflesh and with spreading. "What is a bald head?" "If one have eaten crocodile fat, 1 or anointed with this fat a sore unsuitable for the growth of hair." "What is a bald head?" "It extends from the pate, sloping downwards behind to the covering of the neck." "What is a bald forehead?" "It extends from the pate, sloping downwards in front till it comes opposite the hair from above." The bald head and bald forehead do not legally adhere 2 each to the other, and they do not legally spread to each other. R. Judah said, "if there be hair between them they do not adhere to each other, but if not, they adhere."

Footnotes

285:1 i.e. whether the scall preceded the yellow hair, or vice versa.
285:2 Lev. xiii. 30.
287:1 Some commentators explain this to mean salamander oil; and others again interpret it as sloe juice.
287:2 The bald head and bald forehead are not legally counted as one in a decision respecting a case of scall.

CHAPTER XI.

1. Every one's garments receive uncleanness in leprosy except the garments of foreigners. He who buys garments from foreigners should first inspect them. But sea-skins receive no uncleanness in leprosy. "If there be united with them that which grows on the earth, even though it be a thread, or a rope, anything which receives legal uncleanness?" "The garments are unclean."
2. "Suppose camel's wool and sheep's wool commingled?" "If the greater part be from camels, the garments receive
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no uncleanness in leprosy." "If the greater part of the wool be from sheep?" "They receive uncleanness in leprosy." "If they be half and half?" "They receive uncleanness in leprosy." And so also is the rule for flax and hemp, when they are commingled together.
3. "Skins and garments when dyed receive no uncleanness in leprosy. Buildings painted or unpainted, receive uncleanness in leprosy." The words of Rabbi Meier. R. Judah said, "skins are treated as buildings." R. Simon said, "if they be coloured naturally, they receive uncleanness; if artificially, they do not receive it."
4. A garment dyed in its warp, and white in its woof, or dyed in its woof, and white in its warp, has all to be regarded according to its appearance. Garments receive uncleanness in intense greenness and in bright redness. "It was green and it spread all over red, or it was red and it spread all over green?" "It is unclean." "It changed its colour and it again spread; it changed again and it did not spread?" "It is the same as though it did not change." R. Judah said, "it must be examined as in the beginning."
5. "It is at a stand-still in the first week?" "It must be washed and inclosed." "It is at a stand-still in the second week?" "It must be burned." "It spread in both weeks?" "It must be burned." "It was dull in the beginning?" Rabbi Ishmael said, "it must be washed and inclosed," but the Sages say, "leave it alone." "It was dull in the first week?" "It must be washed and inclosed." "It was dull in the second week?" "It must be torn out, and that which is torn out must be burned, and it should be patched." R. Nehemiah said, "it need not be patched."
6. "If the leprosy returned to the garment?" "The patch is saved." "If it returned to the patch?" "The garment must be burned." "If the patch on a clean garment was from an inclosed garment, and the plague returned to the inclosed garment?" "The patch must be burned." "If it returned to the patch?" "The first garment must be burned, and the patch may serve the second garment with marks."
7. "Suppose a summer dress in which there is patch
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work, dyed and white, the leprosy spreads from one patch to the other?" They questioned Rabbi Eleazar, "how is it if there be one patch only?" He said to them, "I have not heard." R. Judah, son of Bethirah, said to him, "I will study it." He said to him, "if thou dost study it for the confirmation of the opinions of the Sages, yes." He said to him, "perhaps it will be at a stand-still for two weeks, and a stand-still in garments for two weeks causes uncleanness." He said to him, "thou art a great Sage, because thou hast confirmed the words of the Sages." Spreading near to the source, however little—at a distance from the source, the measure of three lentils square, and reappearance the measure of three lentils square—(cause uncleanness).
8. The warp and woof receive uncleanness instantly. R. Judah said, "the warp from the time it is boiled, and the woof instantly, and the stalks of flax from the time that they are bleached." "How much must there be in the bobbin, that it shall receive uncleanness in leprosy?" "Sufficient to weave both of warp and woof three fingers square—ay, even if it be all warp—or even all woof." If there be knots in the thread it receives no uncleanness in leprosy. R. Judah said, "even though there be one break and it was knotted, it receives no uncleanness."
9. "If thread was rolled from one bobbin to the other, from one spool to the other, from the upper to the lower weaver's beam, and also from the two sides of a shirt, and if the leprosy appeared in one of them?" "The second is clean." In the weaving of the woof, and in the warp at a stand-still, they receive uncleanness instantly. R. Simon said, "the warp if it were quite prepared receives uncleanness."
10. "Has the leprosy appeared in the warp at a standstill?" "That which is already woven is clean." "Has it appeared in that which is woven?" "The warp at a standstill is clean." "Has it appeared in the fine linen?" "The selvage must be burned." "Has it appeared in the selvage?" "The fine linen is clean." A shirt in which the leprosy appeared saves its seams, even if they be purple.
11. "Everything which is adapted to receive uncleanness
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from the dead, even though it is not suitable for uncleanness from treading, receives uncleanness from leprosy, such as the sails of a ship, the mainsail, and the combs 1 for women's hair, and book covers, and girdles, and latchets for shoes and sandals, which are as broad as three lentils square. These all become unclean with leprosy. "Fringes in which leprosy appeared?" R. Eleazar, the son of Jacob, said, "they are not unclean until the leprosy appear in the part woven and in their down." Water bottles and bags which appear as usual, and yet there is spreading from inside outwards, and from outside inwards (are unclean).
12. "A garment which has been inclosed and mixed with others?" "All are clean." "If it be cut up and reduced to down?" "It is clean, and its use is allowed." "But if it be decided unclean and mixed with others?" "All are unclean." "If it be cut up and reduced to down?" "It is unclean and its use is forbidden."

Footnotes

290:1 Isaiah iii. 18.

CHAPTER XII.

1. All buildings receive uncleanness in leprosy except the buildings of foreigners. He who buys houses from foreigners must first inspect them. A round house, a three-cornered house, a house built on a ship or on a mast, or one built on four beams, do not receive uncleanness in leprosy. But if the house be square, even though it be built on four pillars, it receives uncleanness in leprosy.
2. "Suppose a house one of whose sides is covered with marble, and one side with flagging, and one with tiling, and one with mortar?" "It is clean." "A house in which there are not stones, and wood, and mortar, and the plague appeared in it, and afterwards there was brought into it stones, and wood, and mortar?" "It is clean." "And also a garment in which there was not weaving three fingers square, and the plague appeared in it, and afterwards it was woven three fingers square?" "It is clean." No house causes
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uncleanness in leprosy until there be in it stones, and wood, and mortar.
3. "And how many stones must be in it?" R. Ishmael said, "four." R. Akiba said "eight," then said Rabbi Ishmael "until the leprosy appear the measure of twice three lentils square on two stones, or even on one stone." R. Akiba said, "until the leprosy appear the measure of twice three lentils square on two stones, not on one stone." R. Eleazar, son of R. Simon, said, "until there appear as much leprosy as the measure of twice three lentils square upon two stones in the corner of two walls, its length the measure of twice three lentils square, and its breadth the measure of three lentils square."
4. There must be wood sufficient to put under a lintel. R. Judah said, "sufficient to make a buttress behind a lintel." There must be mortar sufficient to fill up a crack. The walls of a crib and the walls of a shed receive no uncleanness in leprosy. Jerusalem and the regions beyond the Land (of Israel) receive no uncleanness in leprosy.
5. "How is the inspection of the house?" “The owner of the house must come and inform the priest, saying, "the resemblance of the leprosy has appeared in my house:" even though he be a learned man, and knows the leprosy with certainty, he should not decide, and say, "a leprosy has appeared in my house," but "the resemblance of the leprosy has appeared in my house." And the priest orders him to clear the house before he shall come to inspect the leprosy, so that all in the house be not unclean, and afterwards the priest shall come to inspect the house, even if it be only bundles of wood, or even bundles of reeds.” The words of R. Judah. R. Simon said, "is it the (priest's) business to order the clearing of the house?" R. Meier said, "and what does he pronounce unclean for him, if you shall say vessels of wood, and garments, and metals, they may be washed and they are clean." "On what had the law pity?" "On his earthern vessels, and on his jug, and on his oven." If the law had thus pity on the property of the vulgar, much more on the property of the honourable; if thus the law had pity
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on his property, much more (had it pity) on the soul of his sons and his daughters; if it had so much pity for the wicked, much more (had it pity) for the righteous.
6. The priest does not enter into the house and shut it up, nor into the house in which there is the leprosy and shut it up. But he stands at the door of the house in which there is the leprosy and shuts it up, as is said, "Then the priest shall go out of the house to the door of the house, and shut up the house seven days: and the priest shall come again the seventh day and shall look: and behold, if the plague be spread in the walls of the house, then the priest shall command that they take away the stones in which the plague is, and they shall cast them into an unclean place without the city." 1 And he shall take other stones and bring them to replace the (first) stones, and he shall take other mortar and plaster the house. He must not take the stones from this side and bring them to that side, nor mortar from this side and bring it to that side, nor take lime from every place. He must not bring one stone instead of two, nor two stones instead of one. But he must bring two instead of two, three instead of three, four instead of four. From whence do they say, "woe to the wicked, woe to his neighbour?" “When both have to take away the stones, both to scrape the house, both must bring back other stones, but the owner himself must bring the mortar, as is said, “And he shall take other mortar, and shall plaster the house.” 2 His companion need not trouble himself about the plaster.
7. The priest came in the end of the week and inspected the house. If the leprosy returned, he must break down the house, its stones, and its timber, and all the mortar of the house, and he must carry them forth without the city to an unclean place. Spreading of leprosy near its source, however little, and at a distance from its source, the measure of three lentils square, and its return in houses the measure of twice three lentils square (render houses unclean).

Footnotes

292:1 Lev. xiv. 38-40.
292:2 Lev. xiv. 42.

CHAPTER XIII.

1. The indications of leprosy in houses are ten. "It was dull in the first week, and it went away?" "It must be scraped off, and it is clean." "It was dull in the second week, and it went away?" "It must be scraped off, but its owner needs the birds." 1 "It was spreading in the first week?" "He takes it out, and scrapes it down, and plasters it, and gives it another week." "If it return?" "It must be broken down." "It did not return?" "He needs the birds." "It stood still in the first week, and spread in the second?" "He takes it out and scrapes it down, and plasters it, and gives it another week." "It returns?" "It must be broken down." "It did not return?" "He needs the birds." 2 "It stood still in the one week and also in the other?" "He must take it out, and scrape it down, and plaster it, and give it another week." "It returns?" "It must be broken down." "It did not return?" "He needs the birds." 2 "Before he is cleansed by the birds the leprosy again appeared in it?" "It must be broken down." "And if after he was cleansed by the birds, the leprosy again appeared in it?" "It must be inspected as in the beginning."
2. The corner stone, when it is to be taken out, must be taken out entirely. "When it is to be broken down?" "A man must break down only his own part, and leave that of his neighbour." It follows that taking out is more difficult than breaking down. R. Eliezer said, "in the case of a house built on the projection of a binding stone, if the leprosy appeared in the projection, he takes it all away, if it appeared in the binding stone, he takes that which belongs to him, and leaves that part which belongs to his neighbour."
3. "A house, in which the leprosy appeared, has an upper storey on it?" "The (priest) concedes the beams to the upper storey." "It appeared in the upper storey?" "He concedes the beams to the house itself." "There was no upper storey on it?" "The stones and timber and mortar
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are broken down with it. But the concession (of the beams) saves the balconies upon them, and the lattices of the windows." R. Judah said, "a battlement built over it is to be broken down with it, its stones and timbers and mortar cause uncleanness in the measure of an olive." R. Eleazar Hashma said, "however little they be."
4. A house which is shut up, causes uncleanness inside. "But that house which is decided unclean inside and outside?" "Both inside and outside it causes uncleanness by one entering into it."
5. "Suppose stones built into a clean house from one legally shut up, and the leprosy again returned to the house?" "He must take the stones away." "If the leprosy returned to the stones?" "The first house must be broken down, and the stones may serve for the second house with marks."
6. "A house which covers over a leprous house, and also a tree which covers over a leprous house?" "He who entered the outer one is clean." The words of R. Eliezer, son of Azariah. Said R. Eliezer, "what! if one stone of it causes uncleanness by entrance into it, should not the house itself also cause uncleanness by entrance into it?"
7. "One unclean with leprosy stood beneath a tree, and one clean passed by?" "The latter becomes unclean." "One clean stood beneath the tree, and one unclean passed by?" "The former remains clean." "If he stood?" "The one clean becomes unclean." "And if one passed by with a leprous stone?" "He remains clean," "But if he stops?" "The one clean becomes unclean."
8. "A clean person entered with his head and the greater part of his body into an unclean house?" "He becomes unclean." "And an unclean person entered with his head and the greater part of his body into a clean house?" "He renders it unclean." A clean garment, of which three fingers square, entered an unclean house, is rendered unclean, and the unclean garment, which enters even the size of an olive into a clean house, causes legal uncleanness.
9. "He who enters a leprous house, with his garments on his shoulder, and his sandals and rings in his hand?"
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[paragraph continues] "He and they are instantly unclean. If he be dressed in his clothes and his sandals on his feet, and his rings on his fingers, he is instantly unclean: but they remain clean, whilst he can eat half a loaf 1 of wheaten, but not of barley bread. He may sit and eat it with soup."
10. "If one stood within a leprous house, and stretched his hand outside and his rings were in his hand, or if he remained whilst he could eat half a loaf?" "They are unclean." "If he stood outside and stretched his hand inside the leprous house, and his rings were in his hand?" R. Judah pronounces them "instantly unclean," but the Sages say, "not until he could have time to eat half a loaf." They said to R. Judah "what! if in the time all his body is unclean, no uncleanness is produced in that which is upon him, until he remain whilst he can eat half a loaf—is it not the legal decision that, in the time all his body is clean he does not render that which is upon him unclean till he remain the time for eating half a loaf."
11. "A leper enters a house?" "All the vessels there are unclean, even up to the beams of the house." Rabbi Simon said, "up to four cubits high." Vessels are instantly unclean. R. Judah said, "vessels are rendered unclean if he remain till he can light a candle."
12. If he entered the synagogue, the congregation makes for him a division ten handbreadths high, and in breadth four cubits. He must enter first and go out last. All covering bound 2 saves from legal uncleanness in the tent of the dead. The covering bound also saves from uncleanness in the leprous house. "And everything which saves from uncleanness in the tent of the dead with a cover only, such also saves from uncleanness in a leprous house." The words of R. Meier. R. José said, "every covering bound which saves in the tent of the dead also saves in the leprous house when covered only. And everything which saves from uncleanness when covered in the tent of the dead, even though it be uncovered in the leprous house, is clean."

Footnotes

293:1 Lev. xiv. 4.
293:2 This reply forms a kind of chorus such as is found in the Greek poets. It is used like one in the Thyrsis of Theocritus.
295:1 Half a loaf, some say of the size of three eggs, others of four eggs.
295:2 Numbers xix. 15.

CHAPTER XIV.

1. "How was the leper cleansed?" “He brought a new earthen vessel, and put into it a quarter of a log of running water, and he brought two tame birds. He killed one of them over the earthen vessel and over the running water. He dug and buried it before him. He took cedar-wood and hyssop, and scarlet (wool), and rolled them in the rest 1 of the piece of wool. And he attached to them the tips of the wings, and the end of the tail of the second bird. The priest dipped them into the earthen vessel, and sprinkled the water and blood seven times on the back of the hand of the leper, and some say on his forehead. And so also was the order of sprinkling on the lintel of the leprous house outside.
2. The priest proceeded to let loose the living bird. He turned his face neither towards the sea, nor the city, nor the wilderness, as is said, "And shall let the living bird out from the city into the open field." 2 He proceeds to shave the leper. He causes the razor to pass over all his flesh. And the leper washes his clothes and bathes. He is clean, so as not to render others unclean by his entrance into a house; but he still causes uncleanness like the creeping thing. He may enter within the city wall. He remains a wanderer from his home seven days, and the use of his bed is forbidden.
3. On the seventh day he undergoes a second shaving like to the first. He washes his clothes and bathes. He is clean from causing uncleanness like the creeping thing; and he is as one daily baptized. He may eat of the tithes. When the sun is setting, he may eat of the heave-offering. When he brought his atonement, he may eat of the holy things. There exist three cleansings for leprosy, and three cleansings for childbirth.
4. Three persons must shave, and they are shaved by legal command, the Nazarite, and the leper, and the Levites;
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and all these if they be shaved without a razor, or were left with two hairs, did nothing.
5. The two birds are ordered to be equal in colour, and size, and price, and to be procured at the same time. Even if they be unequal, they are allowed. If one be procured to-day, and the other procured to-morrow they are allowed. "If one be killed, and it be found that it is not tame?" "The leper must take a pair for the second bird." The first bird is lawful for food. "If it be killed, and it be found unlawful?" "He must take a pair for the second bird." The first is lawful for ordinary use. 1 "If its blood be poured away?" "The one to be let loose must die in its stead." "If the one to be let loose die?" "The blood of the one killed must be poured away." 2
6. The cedar is ordered to be a cubit in length, and in breadth the quarter of a bedpost split into halves, and these halves again split into quarters. The hyssop is ordered not to be Greek hyssop, or coloured hyssop, or Roman hyssop, or desert hyssop, or any sort of hyssop with a distinctive name.
7. On the eighth day the leper must bring three sacrifices, the sin-offering, and the trespass-offering, and the burnt-offering; and the poor man must bring a bird for the sin-offering, and for the burnt-offering a bird.
8. He came beside his trespass-offering, and laid both his hands upon it, and slew it, and two priests received its blood; one of them received it in a vessel, and one received it in his hand. He who received it in the vessel came and sprinkled it on the side of the altar; and he who received it in his hand came beside the leper. And the leper bathed in the leper's chamber, and went and stood in the gate of Nicanor. R. Judah said, "the bathing was not necessary."
9. The leper stretched in his head from the gate of Nicanor, and the priest put (the blood) of his trespass-offering
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on the tip 1 of his ear; he stretched in his hand, and he put it on the thumb of his hand; he stretched in his foot, and he put it on the great toe of his foot. R. Judah said, "he might stretch in the three at once." If he had no thumb, or great toe, or right ear, he could never be cleansed. R. Eleazar said, "the priest put (the blood) in their places." R. Simon said, "if the priest put it on the left hand members the leper went free. It was well done."
10. The priest took the log of oil, and poured it into the palm of his brother priest, and if he poured it into his own palm, it was well done. He dipped his finger into the oil and sprinkled it seven times before the Holy of Holies. At every sprinkling he dipped in his finger. He came beside the leper. On the place where he put the blood there he put the oil, as is said, "Upon the place of the blood of the trespass-offering." 2 And the remainder of the oil which was on the palm of the priest, he must put on the head of him that is to be cleansed to make an atonement. "If he put it on, he atoned. And if he did not put it on, he made no atonement." The words of R. Akiba. R. Johanan, the son of Nuri, said, "the command is free between putting on the oil or not putting it on." "He has atoned, but without the oil?" "It is not reckoned to him as a complete atonement." "If the log of oil failed before he poured it out?" "He may refill it." "If it failed from the time of pouring it out?" "He must bring another log as in the beginning." The words of R. Akiba. R. Simon said, "if the log failed before the priest sprinkled it he may refill it. If it failed at the time of sprinkling it he must bring another, as in the beginning."
11. "A leper who brought his offering as a poor man, and became rich, or as a rich man, and became poor?" "All depends on the sin-offering." The words of R. Simon. R. Judah said, "on the trespass-offering."
12. "If a poor leper brought the offering of the rich?" "It is well done." "But if a rich one brought the offering of the poor?" "It is nothing." A man may bring for his
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son, for his daughter, for his man-servant or for his maidservant the offering of the poor, and they may eat of their sacrifices. R. Judah said, "but for his wife he must bring the offering of the rich, and so likewise every offering for which she is responsible."
13. "Two lepers whose offerings were mixed, and the offering of one of them is already made, and one of them died?" This question the men of Alexandria asked of R. Joshua. He answered them, "the survivor must write his property in the name of another man, and bring the offering of the poor."

Footnotes

296:1 The piece that extended over after the wool was laid parallel with the cedar and hyssop.
296:2 Lev. xiv. 7.
297:1 Some commentators think that the use of the bird was forbidden, but after examining several editions of the Mishna, I have translated as in the text.
297:2 By reference to the tract on the Day of Atonement vi. 1, it will be found that the regulations for the goats are similar in principle to the regulations for the birds of the leper.
298:1 Or on the middle of the inside of his ear.
298:2 Lev. xiv. 28.
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