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Παρασκευή, 26 Απριλίου 2013

Superconductivity

Superconductivity is infinitely more than a physics phenomena of the first order.  It may be one of the fundamental linking mechanisms in an unlimited and connected universe.  The physics is referenced, for example, in the Scientific References, but for those looking for a quick and dirty explanation, the following will provide an inkling of the immensity of the subject.  Just keep in mind that any U. S. patent application which includes anywhere in its text the word “superconductivity” is automatically sent to the Department of Defense for review.  That should be convincing evidence that this subject is worth investigating.  
Most, but not all, conductors of electrical current, when cooled sufficiently in the direction of absolute zero (0 oK, -273.15 oC), become superconductors.  The superconducting state itself is one in which there is zero electrical resistance and perfect diamagnetism. [1]  This means that current flowing through a superconducting circuit does not experience i2R heating (current squared times the resistance), and the current can flow indefinitely.   Also, diamagnetism is the property of a substance to become magnetized in a direction at right angles to an applied magnetic field (Michael Faraday discovered the effect in 1846 that when such substances were brought near the pole of a strong magnet, they were repelled).  The diamagnetism of the superconducting state is extraordinary in that it expels from its interior any external magnetic field(s) -- up to a limiting critical magnetic field strength.  
The last factor is even more incredible when one realizes that when a conductor undergoes the transition to the superconducting state, the superconductor expels a pre-existing field -- a phenomenon known as the Meisner Effect.  (The superconductor’s magnetic field is also called a Meisner Field, and is thus distinguished from the nature of other magnetic fields.)  External magnetic fields do penetrate the superconducting Meisner Field to some degree, the penetration depth being temperature dependent (minimum penetration at 0 oK, and infinite at Tc, defined as the Critical Temperature for the superconductor in question).  
Inasmuch as it takes energy to expel a magnetic field from a superconductor, a magnet can under the right circumstances float freely above a superconductor at the point where the upward force generated by the field-expulsion energy balances the downward gravitational force.  This dramatic phenomenon of magnetic Levitation becomes even more fascinating when one recognizes the Earth is effectively a magnet, and that a superconductor (being of somewhat less mass) could thus reverse the roles and float freely above the Earth.  
The currently reigning theory with respect to superconductivity is known as the BCS theory (named after John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper, and J. Robert Schrieffer).  The BCS theory describes a pairing of conduction electrons by some interelectron attraction and a condensation of these pairs, “Cooper pairs”, to form a macroscopic quantum state.  The superconductor’s electrical resistance is zero because the Cooper pair condensate moves as a coherent quantum mechanical entity, which atomic lattice vibrations and impurities cannot disrupt by scattering individual Cooper pairs in the same manner they scatter single conduction electrons -- the latter being the reason electrical circuits have resistance.  
The critical elements in reaching the superconducting state are for conduction electrons to somehow form Cooper pairs, which then in turn automatically condense into a coherent flow, the “coherent” aspect being similar to that of a laser, i.e. everybody in step!  
How the Cooper pairs are formed is obviously a critical factor in superconductivity.  One theory is an electron passing by the crystal lattice of atoms in the conductor distorts the lattice in such a way the next electron is attracted to the lattice distortion.  Or instead of the electron-pairing being mediated by lattice vibrations, the interaction of the conduction electrons may be due to charge or electron spin fluctuations in some electronic subsystem.   
Note the emphasis on spin and fluctuations.  From the discussions on Casimir Effect and Spin, we derive the concept of an electron consisting of an infinitely conducting shell, one with a minute magnetic field [i.e. a superconductor with Meisner Field].  Spin adds the critical ingredient of maintenance of the magnetic/Meisner field, while fluctuations (at the level of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle) connect via Hyperdimensional Physics all of the electrons in the superconducting state.  But it gets better.  
Two superconductors separated by a very narrow insulating barrier form what is known as a Josephson Junction.  The Josephson mechanism is a general phenomena and applies beyond the special case of superconductors.  There is, for example, a correlation among oscillating electric dipoles, the microscopic components of living systems.  In effect, a pair of neighboring biological cells could represent the same model, as in superconductivity.  
Researchers have in fact found evidence of Josephson-like phenomena occurring in living systems.  Other effects suggested a Meisner effect -- and importantly, something which disappeared all together in a solution which was completely sterile biologically.  This has led to the conjecture that room temperature superconductive effects exist in association with living cells.  Further, the realization of nearby cells acting as a Josephson junction, yielded the conclusion that intracellular coherence would, through the Josephson effect, give rise to an intercellular coherence.  Back to the laser; every cell in step!  
An important aspect is that the oscillations of electric dipoles in living systems are able to produce coherent electromagnetic fields whose phase is locked to the phase of the matter field.  An external electromagnetic field can become phase correlated only if its energy does not disrupt the coherence.  Very strong electromagnetic fields can actually disrupt this correlation, or coherent structure, in a biological system.  An external electromagnetic field can interfere with the fundamental processes of cell division, and conversely the cellular process can induce electromagnetic phenomena. [2]  
And it’s all about superconductivity!  
The implications are staggering, particularly in Consciousness research, where by some unknown means, human consciousnesses are interacting and influencing each other.  Some of these interactions are effectively coherent interactions such as in a group meditating or praying with the same goal.  The really fundamental question is the degree and manner in which the phenomenon of superconductivity is playing a role in consciousness.  
Other research has shown that strong emotions can alter our DNA!  No kidding.  Thus we are faced with our emotions modifying our DNA, which in turn (along with our conscious mental effort and/or focus), influences the external world.  And because such effects -- at least according to the implications of The Fifth Element, Zero-Point Energy, and similar research... because such effects are not limited by distance of linear time, we might want to rethink our even thinking (or getting emotional about) making anyone else emotionally upset.  Think of everyone else having PMS and a 45 caliber pistol.   The only saving grace is that apparently the real power of emotions and/or mental focus are limited by the degree to which an emotional/mental consciousness can tap into the superconducting state.  
In this regard, it is worth noting the research of David Radius Hudson.  In one of his lectures (this one in 1995, in Dallas, Texas), he paints a coherent picture of a new reality.  Excerpts from this lecture are included below:  
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“Superconductivity is not electricity.  Superconductivity is like a world of it's own. A material that is a superconductor contains one vibrational frequency within it, a lot like a laser.  The light flows perpetually within the system.  No where in the system is there any voltage.  You can't hook up a wire here and a wire there to the superconductor and get current to flow in and out of it, because to get current off of the wire, you've got to have a voltage, and yet by definition a superconductor won't allow any voltage.  So the material's a perfect insulator, not just a superconductor.  But if you resonant frequency tune the wire so that the electrons vibrate at the same frequency as the superconductor, then the electrons will flow on as light, as electron pairs.  They will pair up and flow on, because they're seeking the path of least resistance which is the superconductor.”  
“It’s different than an ordinary conductor and shouldn't be thought of as electricity, because it's light. An amazing thing is, if you resonant frequency tune a conductor to the frequency of the superconductor, the energy starts flowing, but it's flowing as light.  Any amount of light can exist in the same space-time.  There's only so much electricity can flow on the conductor, but light can flow on forever.”  
“Around the superconductor a Meisner field is formed.  The Meisner field has no north or south pole; it's just a field, but it's unique in magnetism in that it has no north or south pole.  The size of the magnetic field is proportional to the amount of light that is flowing within the superconductor.”  
“In the Ark of the Covenant was a pot of the Manna, and the stone through which God spoke to Moses.  When Moses was up on Mount Sinai, he was smelting the Manna to the gold glass.  Why do I say that?  When you understand that in Old Kingdom Egypt these [hairy things over the eyes] were called bushes not eyelashes.  These were bushes; check you're Egyptian literature.  The burning bush was the enlightened Third Eye.”  
“So, Moses on Mount Sinai, when he looked upon the burning bush... That was just a mistranslation.  It was the third eye opening and God communicated to him through this stone.  God didn't write on the stone.  If he wrote on the stone, why would he put it in a box, seal it up and then let no one look at it?  If God wrote on it, He would put it up on the wall where everybody could read it.  When you realize that in Old Kingdom Egypt, on the holiest day in Old Kingdom of Egypt -- in the Sign of the Seal [by Graham Hancock] you read this -- they carried around an Ark on two poles, and in the Ark was a stone.  Coincidentally what was in the Ark of the Covenant?  A stone.  The pot of Manna and the stone. The gold glass.”  
“Around the Ark of the Covenant was the Meisner field.  The strange thing about the Meisner field is that other Meisner fields that oscillate at the same frequency, can enter that field and not perturb it.  So if you are a high priest, a Melchizedek priest, and you eat this Bread of the Presence of God every week, you are a light being, and you can enter into that field and approach the Ark of the Covenant and not perturb it because you're in resonance with it.  But if you're an ordinary soldier or a person who thinks bad things,  they have to tie a rope around your legs because as you approach it, it may have a flux collapse.  Now if you can imagine several hundred thousand amps, and now you have voltage, it's like a bolt of lightning.  It literally is energy of an unbelievable magnitude.”  
“As long as there is no voltage, you could touch it, you could feel it, it's hundreds of thousands of amps, but no tickle, no tingle, because there's no voltage.  As long as you're in resonance with it, you can approach it, you can touch it, you can hold it, you can feel it; Nothing!  But if you're not in resonance with it, and enter the field, and perturb the resonance, and there's a flux collapse, and now you've got voltage...  It'll kill you.”  
“Remember in the Bible that the Ark of the Covenant actually levitated and floated along, and actually carried some of the people who were carrying it.  The only thing to do that's a superconductor.”  
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At this point, it should have become readily obvious that Superconductivity is no passing fad (as in encouraging electrons to go with the flow -- in pairs and/or at the same time to lighten up).  Siriusly, superconductivity, instead of being a phenomenon of great interest to scientists, is fundamental to life, to Consciousness, to the very ascent of our species into the realms of Kether, the Crown of the Tree of Life.  It is apparently the basis for the ORME, Star Fire, and the White Powder of Gold.  The fact that it explains the structure of the electron and its properties, clarifies different aspects of the Casimir Effect, The Fifth Element, Zero-Point Energy, and Hyperdimensional Physics, and provides the connection link of Mach’s Principle, the EPR Experiment, and the universe...  Well, that’s just the icing on the cake!  (But really tasty icing!)  
For  true aficionados <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids> is an excellent, nicely presented (albeit brief) guide into the superconducting world -- what might be called light reading (pardon the pun) . Note in particular the material on the Meisner Effect.
Adding a bit more mathematics, another website -- one basically designed for high school teachers -- is <http://www.physnet.uni-hamburg.de/home/vms/reimer/htc/pt3.html>.  In his introduction, Dull writes, “The theoretical understanding of superconductivity is extremely complicated and involved.  It is far beyond the scope of this video booklet to attempt to discuss the quantum mechanics of superconductors.  However, in this section fundamental terms and phenomena of superconductors will be discussed.”  

http://www.halexandria.org/dward156.htm

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