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Μάρκος Αυρήλιος

Τρίτη, 4 Δεκεμβρίου 2012

The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, [1878] 6

TREATISE V.

On the Day of Atonement.
Preparations of the High Priest—Cleansing the Altar—Casting Lots—Daybreak—Offerings—Dress—Prayer—The Goats—Monobazus—Helena—Azazel—the Golden Censer—the Vail—Holy of Holies—"Foundation"—Sprinkling the Blood—Sending forth the Goat into the Wilderness—High Priest burning the Bullock and Goat—Reading—Ceremonial—Rules and Exceptions—Repentance and Atonement.

CHAPTER I.

1. Seven days before the Day of Atonement the High Priest was removed from his house to the chamber 1 Parhedrin, and the council prepared for him another priest, 2 lest there happen to him any defilement. R. Judah said, "they prepared also another wife, lest his wife die;" as is said, 3 "And he shall atone for himself and for his house;" for his house, i.e. for his wife. The Sages said to him, "if so, there is no end to the matter."
2. All these seven days, he (the high priest) sprinkled the blood, burned the incense, and trimmed the lamps, and offered the head and the foot. On the remainder of all the days, if he wished to offer, he offered; since the high priest first offered part, and first took part (in the sacrifices).
3. The elders from the elders of the great Sanhedrin delivered to him, and read before him, the ceremonial of the day; and they said to him, "My Lord High Priest, read with thy mouth, perchance thou hast forgotten, or perchance thou hast not learned." 4 On the eve of the day of atonement, towards dawn, they placed him in the eastern gate (of the Temple), and they caused to pass before him bullocks,
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rams, and lambs, that he might be skilled and expert in his ministry.
4. All the seven days they did not withhold from him food and drink; the eve of the day of atonement, with the beginning of darkness, they did not permit him to eat much, since food induces sleep.
5. The elders of the great Sanhedrin delivered him to the elders of the priesthood, who brought him to the upper chamber of the house Abtinas. And they administered to him the oath, 1 and they left him and departed. And they. said to him, "My Lord High Priest, we are ambassadors of the great Sanhedrin, and thou art our ambassador, and the ambassador of the great Sanhedrin. We adjure thee by Him, whose Name dwells in this house, that thou wilt not change aught of all which we have said to thee." He went apart and wept. They went apart and wept. 2
6. If he were a learned man, he expounded; but if not, the disciples of the learned expounded before him. If he were skilled in reading, he read; but if not, they read before him. "And in what did they read before him?" "In Job, and in Ezra, and in Chronicles." Zachariah, the son of Kebutal, said, "I often read before him in Daniel."
7. If he desired to sleep, the young priests filliped with the first finger 3 before him, and said to him, "My Lord High Priest, stand up and refresh thyself 4 once on the pavement," and they kept him occupied 5 until the time approached for slaying (the victims).
8. Every day they cleansed the altar at cockcrow, or at its approach, intermediate before or after it; and on the day of atonement 6 at midnight; and in the three great feasts, at the first watch. And before cockcrow the court was crowded with Israel.

Footnotes

119:1 Where the counsellors sat.
119:2 Called Sagan (suffragan) (2 Kings xxv. 18; Jer. lii. 24).
119:3 Lev. xvi. 6.
119:4 As might occur from the frequent changes during the second Temple.
120:1 That he would incense "within" the vail (Lev. xvi. 12, 13), in opposition to the Sadducees, who maintained that the incense should be burned "without."
120:2 That such an oath was necessary.
120:3 Or the "index" finger; other trans. the "middle" finger.
120:4 Or change thyself.
120:5 Singing to him "Unless the Lord build the house, they labour but in vain that build it, etc." (Psalm cxxvii.)
120:6 The Jews think that the day of atonement was the day on which Adam sinned, on which Abraham was circumcised, and on which Moses offered atonement for the sin of the golden calf.

CHAPTER II.

1. At first every one who wished to (cleanse) the altar, cleansed it. When they were many, they ran and mounted the ascent, and each one, who at the middle outstripped his companion by four cubits, won it. If two were equal the president said to them, "lift your fingers." 1 "And what is that?" "They lifted one or two fingers, but no one lifted the thumb in the Sanctuary."
2. It happened that two were equal, and running and mounting the ascent, one of them thrust his companion, so that he fell, and his leg was broken. And when the great Sanhedrin saw that they were getting into danger, they decreed that they should not cleanse the altar save by lot. There were four lots, and this was the first lot.
3. The second lot was: Who should slay? Who sprinkle? Who should take the ashes from the inner altar? and who should take the ashes from the candlestick? and who should carry the members to the ascent? the head and the right foot, and the hind feet, the tail, and the left foot, the breast, and the throat, and the two sides, and the inwards, and the fine flour, and the pancakes, and the wine. Thirteen priests discharged this lot. Said Ben Asai in the presence of R. Akiba from the mouth of Rabbi Joshua, "like to its way of motion" (when alive).
4. The third lot 2 was for new men who came to offer incense, and they cast the lots. The fourth lot was for new men with the old, who should carry the members from the ascent to the altar.
5. The daily offering was with nine, ten, eleven, twelve, priests; not less and not more. "How?" "Itself with nine:
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at the feast of Tabernacles in the hand of one, a glass of water there is ten. The evening offering with eleven, itself with nine, and in the hands of two, two faggots of wood. On Sabbath, eleven; itself with nine, and two, in their hands two fragments of incense of the shewbread. And on the Sabbath in the feast of Tabernacles in the hand of one a glass of water."
6. The ram was offered with eleven; the flesh with five, the inner part, and the fine flour and the wine, to each two and two.
7. The bullock was offered with twenty-four priests. "The head and the right foot?" "The head with one, and the foot with two." "The chine and the left foot?" "The tail with two, and the left foot with two." "The breast and the throat?" "The breast with one, and the throat with three, the two hind feet with two, and the two sides with two, the inner parts and the fine flour, and the wine, each with three and three." "Of which is that said?" "Of the offering for the whole congregation." "But for the offerings of an individual?" "If he wished to offer, he might offer." "For the skinning and cutting up?" "For these all were equal."

Footnotes

121:1 i.e. Cast lots, which was done by placing the priests in a row, and bidding their to hold up their fingers. After fixing on a certain number, the cap of one of them was taken off. With this priest the reckoning began, and proceeded till the prearranged number fell on some one of them; and his was the lot. Particular care was taken to count the fingers which were held up, and not to number their persons, as this was considered unlawful. (1 Chron. xxi. 1.)
121:2 The third lot for burning incense was the most important. It was always done by a fresh man, so that a priest might burn incense only once during his lifetime. (Luke i. 9; Rev. viii. 3, 4.)

CHAPTER III.

1. The overseer said to them, "go and look if the time for slaughter is come." If it came, the watchman said, "it is brightening." 1 Matthew the son of Samuel said, "is the whole east light as far as Hebron?" and he said "yes."
2. "And why was that necessary?" "Because it once happened that the light of the moon came up, and they deemed it the light from the east." And they slaughtered the daily offering, and they brought it to the house of burning. And they brought down the High Priest to the house of Baptism. This was the rule in the Sanctuary that every one who covered his feet (was required) to wash; and every one retiring was required to sanctify his hands and feet.
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3. No one entered the court for service, however clean, until he washed. The High Priest made five washings and ten purifications in this day, and all were in the Holy place above the house of Parva, 1 with the exception of this first one alone.
4. They made a screen of linen between him and the people. He undressed, descended, and washed. He came up and wiped himself. They brought to him robes of gold, and he dressed, and he sanctified his hands and feet. They brought to him the daily offering. He cut (its throat), and another finished the slaughter at his hand. He received the blood and sprinkled it. He entered to offer the morning incense and to trim the lights, and to offer the head and the members, and the things fried in the pan, and the wine.
5. The morning incense was offered between the blood and the members. That of the evening 2 between the members and the libations. If the High Priest were old, or delicate, they heated for him (iron), and they put it into the cold water, that its temperature should be changed.
6. They brought him to the house of Parva, and it was in the Sanctuary. They divided with the screen of linen between him and the people. He sanctified his hands and feet and undressed. R. Meier said, he undressed and sanctified his hands and feet, he descended and washed, he came up and he wiped himself. They brought to him white robes, he dressed and sanctified his hands and feet.
7. "In the morning he was dressed with Pelusian linen worth twelve minas, 3 and in the evening with Indian linen worth eight hundred zuz." 4 The words of R. Meier. But the Sages say, "that in the morning his dress was worth eighteen minas, and in the evening twelve minas;" all these thirty minas were from the congregation, find if he wished to add to them he might add of himself.
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8. He came to the side of his bullock, and the bullock was standing between the porch and the altar; his head to the North, and his face to the West; and the Priest stood in the East, and his face Westward, and he placed both hands upon him and made confession, and thus he spake, “I beseech thee, O Name, I have committed iniquity. I have sinned before Thee—I, and my house—I beseech thee, O Name, pardon 1 now the iniquities and the transgressions and the sins which I have perversely committed, and transgressed, and sinned before thee, I, and my house, as is written in the law of Moses thy servant, that in this day “He will atone for you,” etc. And they answered after him, “BLESSED BE THE NAME. THE HONOUR OF HIS KINGDOM FOR EVER AND EVER.”
9. He came to the east of the court to the north of the altar. The Sagan was at his right hand, and the chief of the fathers at his left. And there were the two goats; and the urn was there, and in it were two lots of boxwood, and Ben Gamla made them of gold, and they commemorated him as praiseworthy.
10. The son of Katin made twelve pipes to the laver, where before there were but two; and also he made a wheel for the laver, lest its water should be polluted by night. Monobazus 2 the king made all the handles of the vessels, of gold for the day of atonement. Helena, his mother, made a chandelier of gold near the door of the Sanctuary, and she also made a tablet of gold upon which the section of the Sota 3 was written. Wonders were wrought for the doors of Nicanor, 4 and they were commemorated as praiseworthy.
11. And these were in ignominy: The family of Garmu, who were unwilling to instruct in the preparation of the shew bread. The family of Abtinas, who were unwilling to instruct in the preparation of incense. Hogrus, the son of Levi, knew a tune in the chant, and was unwilling to instruct. The son of Kamzar was unwilling to instruct in
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the art of writing. Concerning the former it is said, "The memory of the just is blessed;" and concerning the latter it is said, "but the name of the wicked shall rot" (Prov. x. 7).

Footnotes

122:1 Or, as your wish
123:1 The Gemara says it was so called because Parva a magician built this room and digged through from it to see the service of the High Priest on the day of atonement; or else because it was used for storing "bullock-hides."
123:2 Lit. between the evenings.
123:3 The mina of the sanctuary was worth about £5 : 14s., consequently the morning dress cost about £68 : 8s.
123:4 The zuz was worth about 6½d., consequently the evening dress cost about £21 : 13 : 4.
124:1 Literally "cover over," i.e. "atone for."
124:2 King of Adiabene, a proselyte to judaism about A.D. 45.
124:3 The accused woman.
124:4 See Treatise on "Measurements," II. 3, note.

CHAPTER IV.

1. He shook the urn and brought up two lots; one was written "for the Name," and the other was written "for Azazel." 1 The Sagan stood at his right hand, and the Chief of the Fathers at his left. If "for the Name" came up in his right hand the Sagan said to him, "My Lord High Priest, lift up thy right hand;" and if "for the Name" came up in his left the Chief of the Fathers said to him, "My Lord High Priest, lift up thy left hand." He placed them upon the two goats, and said, "for the Lord is the sin offering." R. Ismael said, "it was not necessary to mention the sin offering" but "for the Lord." And they answered after him, "BLESSED BE THE NAME. THE HONOUR OF HIS KINGDOM FOR EVER AND EVER."
2. He twisted a tongue 2 of brightness on the head of the goat to be sent away, and he placed him opposite the gate from whence he should be sent. And the one for slaughter he placed opposite the slaughter-house. He himself came beside his bullock the second time, and laid his two hands upon him and made confession, and thus he spake:—
"I beseech Thee, O Name, I have committed iniquity, I have transgressed, I have sinned before Thee. I, and my house, and the sons of Aaron, Thy holy people. I beseech Thee, O Name, pardon iniquities, transgressions, and sins which I have perversely committed, and transgressed, and sinned before Thee, I, and my house, and the sons of Aaron,
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[paragraph continues] Thy holy people, as is written in the law of Moses, Thy servant, saying, that in this day he will atone for you to purify you from all your sins 'Before the LORD. Ye shall be pure.'" And they answered after him, "BLESSED BE THE NAME. THE HONOUR OF HIS KINGDOM FOR EVER AND EVER."
3. He slaughtered him and caught his blood in a bowl, and he gave it to him who mixed it upon the fourth platform of the Sanctuary, that it might not congeal. He took the censer, and went up to the top of the altar, and raked the live coals here and there, and gathered out from the inner embers. And went down and placed it upon the fourth platform in the court.
4. Every day he gathered out the coals with one of silver and poured them out into one of gold, but to-day he gathered them with one of gold and he entered with it. Every day he gathered them out with one of four cabs 1 and poured them into one of three cabs. But to-day he gathered them out with one of three cabs, and with it he entered. Rabbi Joseph said, "every day he gathered out with one containing a seah, 2 and poured it into one of three cabs. But to-day he gathered out with one of three cabs, and with it he entered. Every day it was heavy, but to-day it was light. Every day its handle was short, but to-day long. Every day it was green gold; to-day red." The words of Rabbi Menachem. "Every day he offered half a pound in the morning, and half a pound in the evening, but to-day he added his handful. Every day it was fine; but to-day the finest of the fine."
5. Every day the priests went up the ascent (to the altar) in the east and descended in the west. But to-day the High Priest went up in the middle and descended in the middle. R. Judah said, "The High Priest ever went up in the middle and descended in the middle." Every day the High Priest sanctified his hands and his feet from the laver; but to-day from the golden basin. R. Judah said, "The High Priest ever sanctified his hands and his feet from the golden basin."
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6. "Every day there were there four rows 1 of hearths; but to-day five." The words of R. Meier. Rabbi Joseph said, "every day three; but to-day four." Rabbi Judah said, "every day two; but to-day three."

Footnotes

125:1 A. V. "Scapegoat," or for the "devil." Others translate "wholly put away" in reference to the sins of the people, or for "the hard mountain," and others the "demon of dry places." Some, however, think Azazel to be the fallen angel mentioned in the Book of Enoch, and identical with Sammael, the angel of death. Symmachus translates "the goat that departs." Theodotion translates "the goat sent away." Aquila, "the goat set free." The LXX. and Josephus understand by the term "the averter of ills," and the Vulgate "caper emissarius."
125:2 A tongue-shaped piece of scarlet wool.
126:1 A cab contained 2.8333 pints.
126:2 A seah contained 1 peck and 1 pint.
127:1 On the altar.

CHAPTER V.

1. They brought out for him the cup and the censer, and filled his hand full (of incense), and put it into the cup, the large according to his largeness, 2 and the smaller according to his smallness, and so was its measure. He took the censer in his right hand, and the spoon in his left. He proceeded in the Sanctuary until he came between the two vails dividing between the holy and the holy of holies, and intermediate was a cubit. R. Joseph said, "there was one vail only," as He said, "the vail is the division for you between the Holy and the Holy of Holies" (Exod. xxvi. 33). Outside it was looped up southward, inside northward. He proceeded between them till he reached the north. When he reached the north his face was turned southward. He proceeded leftwards near the vail till he came to the ark. When he came to the ark, he put the censer between its two staves, he heaped the incense on the live coals, and the whole house was entirely filled with smoke. He went out, and returned by the way of his entrance, and he offered a short prayer in the outer house, and he did not prolong his prayer, lest he should excite terror 3 in Israel.
2. When the ark was removed, a stone was there from the days of the first prophets, and it was called "FOUNDATION." 4 It was three digits high above the earth, and upon it he put the censer.
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3. He took the blood from the mixer. 1 With it he entered to the place where he entered, and stood in the place where he stood. He sprinkled of it once on high, and seven times below, and he did not purpose to sprinkle neither on high nor below, but unintentionally, 2 and so he counted, "one, one and one, one and two, one and three, one and four, one and five, one and six, one and seven." He went out and placed it on the golden pedestal, which was in the Sanctuary.
4. They brought to him the goat, he slaughtered it and caught his blood in a bowl. He entered to the place where he entered, and stood in the place where he stood, and sprinkled of it once on high and seven times below, and he did not purpose to sprinkle neither on high nor below, but unintentionally; 2 and so he counted, "one, one and one, one and two," etc. He went out, and placed it on the second pedestal, which was in the Sanctuary. R. Judah said "there was but one pedestal only." He took the blood of the bullock and laid down the blood of the goat, and sprinkled of it on the vail opposite the ark, on the outside, once on high, seven times below, and he did not purpose, etc., and so he counted. He took the blood of the goat and laid down the blood of the bullock, and sprinkled of it on the vail opposite the ark, on the outside, once on high and seven times below, etc. He poured the blood of the bullock into the blood of the goat, and infused the full into the empty.
5. And he went out to the altar which is before the LORD. This was the golden altar. He began cleansing it, and went down. "From what place did he begin?" "From the Northeastern corner, the North-western, South-western, and Southeastern, the place where he began with the sin-offering of the outer altar, at the same place he finished upon the inner altar." R. Eliezer said, "he stood in his place and cleansed, and in general he operated from below upward, excepting that which was before him, on that he operated from above downwards."
THE HIGH PRIEST, IN LINEN VESTMENTS, SPRINKLING THE BLOOD IN THE HOLY OF HOLIES.
Click to enlarge

THE HIGH PRIEST, IN LINEN VESTMENTS, SPRINKLING THE BLOOD IN THE HOLY OF HOLIES.
"For it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul."—Lev. xvii. 11.
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6. He sprinkled on the middle 1 of the altar seven times, and the remainder of the blood he poured out on the western foundation of the outer altar, and the blood from the outer altar he poured out on the southern foundation. This and that commingled in the channel, and flowed out to the Kidron Valley, and they were sold to the gardeners for manure, and they became guilty 2 in themselves.
7. All work of the day of atonement is described in order. If the High Priest performed one before the other, he did nothing. If the blood of the goat be sprinkled before the blood of the bullock, he must return, and sprinkle from the blood of the goat after the blood of the bullock. And if he had not finished the performances within, the blood was spilled. He must bring other blood, and return to sprinkle first from within. And so in the Sanctuary, and so in the golden altar, because all are an atonement in themselves. R. Eleazer and R. Simon say, "from the place where he stopped there he began."

Footnotes

127:2 The size of the priest's hands was proportionate to his stature.
127:3 That he had been struck dead.
127:4 Supposed by some to be the Sukhrah in the present Mosque of OMAR. From its position, however, it seems more probably to have been the foundation of the altar of burnt offerings. This sacred rock is 60 feet across and 5 feet high. It is pierced quite through, to allow, as some think, the blood of the sacrifices to flow off into the "Noble Cave" and the canals beneath it.
128:1 A priest continued to stir the blood to prevent its coagulation.
128:2 Or "as a thrasher."
129:1 Or "the clean place."
129:2 i.e. The gardeners became liable for a trespass offering.

CHAPTER VI.

1. Both he-goats for the day of atonement are commanded to be alike in colour, and in stature, and in price, and to be selected at the same time, and although they be not equal, yet are they lawful. "If one be selected to-day and the other to-morrow?" "They are lawful." "If one of them died?" "If he die before the lot be cast, the priest shall take a pair for the second; and if after the lot be cast he die, the priest shall fetch another pair, and cast the lot over them anew." And he shall say, "if that for the Name die, this over which this lot comes will be a substitute for the Name; and if that for Azazel die, this over which this lot comes will be a substitute for Azazel." And the second shall go to pasture, until he become blemished, and he shall be sold, and his price must be put into the offertory. Since
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the sin-offering of the congregation dies not. R. Judah said, "thou shalt die;" 1 and again said R. Judah, "is his blood shed?" "The one to be sent forth shall die." "Has the one to be sent forth died?" "His blood shall be shed."
2. The high priest came to the side of the goat to be sent forth, and he placed his two hands 2 on him and made confession, and thus he spake: "I beseech Thee, O Name, Thy people, the house of Israel, have done perversely, have transgressed and sinned before Thee. I beseech Thee, O Name, pardon now their perverse doings, and their transgressions, and their sins, which they have perversely committed, and transgressed, and sinned before thee. Thy people the house of Israel, as is written in the law of Moses Thy servant, saying, 'For on that day shall he make an atonement for you to cleanse you from all your sins; before the LORD ye shall be pure.' 3 And the priests and the people who stood in the court, on hearing the Name clearly pronounced by the mouth of the High Priest, knelt and worshipped, and fell on their faces and said, 'BLESSED BE THE NAME. THE HONOUR OF HIS KINGDOM FOR EVER AND EVER.'"
3. They delivered (the goat) to his conductor. All were eligible for conducting him. But the great priests made a rule, and they did not permit Israel to lead him forth. Said R. Joseph, "it occurred that Arsela of Zippori lead him forth, and he was an Israelite."
4. And they made steps 4 for him by reason of the Babylonians, 5 who plucked off his hair and said to him, "take and go, take and go." The nobles of Jerusalem escorted him to the first booth. There were ten booths from Jerusalem to Zuk, 6—ninety stadia—seven and a half to every mile.
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5. At every booth they said to him, "there is food, there is water," and they escorted him from booth to booth, except the last. For they came not with him to Zuk, but stood afar off and saw his acts.
6. "What did he do?" "His conductor divided the tongue of brightness (iv. 2.) Half he twisted on the rock, and half he twisted between his horns. And he thrust him backwards, and the goat rolled, and descended, and he had not reached to the half of the mountain, till his members were made members. 1 He returned and sat under the last booth until darkness set in." "And when did he render garments unclean?" 2 "From his exit from the wall of Jerusalem." R. Simon said, "from the time of his thrusting at Zuk."
7. The High Priest came beside the bullock and he-goat which were to be burned. He cleft them, and brought out their entrails. He put them on a dish, and caused them to smoke upon the altar. He folded them in their skins, and caused them to be carried to the place of burning. "And when did he render garments unclean?" "From his proceeding without the wall of the court." R. Simon said, "when the fire kindled on the greatest part" (of the sacrifice).
8. They said to the High Priest, "the he-goat has arrived in the wilderness." "And whence knew they that the he-goat had arrived in the wilderness?" "They set watchmen, who waved handkerchiefs, and they knew that the he-goat had arrived in the wilderness." Said R. Judah, "and was not this a great sign to them? from Jerusalem to Bethhoron 3 there were three miles. They went a mile and returned, and rested the time of a mile, and they knew that the he-goat arrived in the desert." R. Ishmael 4 said, "and was there not another sign to them? a tongue of brightness was twisted on the door of the Sanctuary, and when the he-goat arrived
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in the wilderness the tongue blanched, as is said, "Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow." 1

Footnotes

130:1 R. Judah addresses in imagination the goat.
130:2 It seems, according to the Talmud, that there was no "laying on of hands" on either the morning or evening sacrifice; or on any other public sacrifice, excepting the scapegoat and the bullock, when the congregation had sinned through ignorance.
130:3 Lev. xvi. 30.
130:4 Or viaduct, or causeway.
130:5 Supposed to be Alexandrine Jews, so called from hatred to the Babylonians.
130:6 Zuk is supposed by Lieutenant Conder of the Palestine Exploration Fund to be the modern el Mûntâr, about six and a half miles east of Jerusalem in the direction of the Dead Sea, and on the way to the ruins of Mird (Mons Mardes). A well near the place is still called Bîr es Sûk.
131:1 i.e. broken to pieces.
131:2 Maimonides says that those connected with the red heifer and scapegoat were rendered unclean because these animals were "sin-bearing" animals. All that Israelites now have to offer on the day of atonement is for males a white cock (because gever in Hebrew signifies a man and a cock), and for females a hen. And they pray, "Let this be my substitute,—this my atonement. This cock goeth to death, but may I be gathered and enter into a long and happy life, and into peace."
131:3 "Place of the hollow."
131:4 Bereitha, or External Traditions.
132:1 Isaiah i. 18.

CHAPTER VII.

1. The High Priest came to read. If he wished to read in linen garments, he read. If not, he read in his own white stole. The public Minister of the congregation took out the roll of the Law, and delivered it to the Chief of the congregation, and the Chief of the congregation gave it to the Sagan, and the Sagan gave it to the High Priest. And the High Priest stood and received it and read. He stood and read "after the death" 2 and "also on the tenth day." 3 And he rolled up the book of the Law, and put it into his bosom, and said, "More than what I have read before you is written here." And "on the tenth" 4 in the Pentateuch of overseers he recited, and pronounced upon it eight blessings; upon the Law, and upon the Service, and upon the confession, and upon the forgiveness of sins, and upon the Sanctuary separately, and upon Israel separately, and upon Jerusalem separately, and upon the Priests separately, and upon the remainder of the prayer.
2. He who saw the High Priest, when he read, could not see the bullock and the he-goat, when they were burning. And he who saw the bullock and the he-goat, when they were burning, could not see the High Priest, when he read. Not because it was forbidden, but because the way was far, and the work of both was proceeding at once.
3. If he read in linen garments, he sanctified his hands and his feet, he undressed, he descended and bathed. He came up, and wiped himself. They brought him golden garments, and he dressed, and he sanctified his hands and his feet, and went forth and offered the ram for himself, and the ram for the people, and seven lambs without blemish of a year old. The words of R. Eleazar. R. Akiba said, "with
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the morning sacrifice they were offered." And the bullock of burnt offering and the he-goat, 1 which was prepared without, were offered with the evening sacrifice.
4. He purified his hands and his feet, and undressed, and washed, and he came up, and wiped himself. They brought to him white garments, and he dressed, and sanctified his hands and his feet. He entered to bring forth the spoon and the censer, he sanctified his hands and his feet, and undressed, and he descended, and washed. He came up, and wiped himself. They brought to him garments of gold, and he dressed, and sanctified his hands and his feet. And he entered to offer the evening incense, and to trim the lights; and he sanctified his hands and his feet, and he dressed. They brought to him his own garments, and he dressed. And they escorted him to his house. And he made a feast-day for his friends, when he went out in peace from the Sanctuary.
5. The High Priest ministered in eight vestments. And the ordinary priest in four, in the tunic, and drawers, and bonnet, and girdle. To these, the High Priest added the breastplate, and ephod, and robe, and (golden) plate. In these they inquired by Urim and Thummim. 2 And they did not inquire in them for a private person; only for the King and the great Sanhedrin, and for whomsoever the congregation is necessary.

Footnotes

132:2 Lev. xvi.
132:3 Lev. xxiii. 27.
132:4 Num. xxix. 7.
133:1 Num. xxix. 7.
133:2 Urim and Thummim (lights and perfections), the Jews think, gave answer by the divine illumination of the suitable letters composing the names of the tribes which were graven on the breastplate of the High Priest.

CHAPTER VIII.

1. On the day of atonement, food, and drink, and washing, and anointing, and the sandal latchet, 3 and marriage duties, are restricted. "But the king and bride are allowed to wash their face, and the woman after childbirth may wear sandals." The words of R. Eleazar, but the Sages forbid them.
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2. The person who eats the size of a big date and its grain, and drinks a jawful, is liable to punishment. All edible things are united for the measure of the date, and all drinkable things are united for the measure of the jawful. Eating and drinking are not united.
3. He who eats and drinks unwittingly, is only liable for one sin-offering. If he eat and work, he is liable for two sin-offerings. He who eats what is disagreeable for food, and drinks what is disagreeable for drinking, and he who drinks fish brine, or salt gravy, is free.
4. They do not afflict young children in the day of atonement, but they coax them one or two years before, that they may be accustomed to the commandments.
5. If the pregnant woman be affected by the odour, they give her food, till her strength return. To the sick person they give food by order from the physicians. If there be no physicians, they give him food at his own demand until he say "it is enough."
6. Him who is affected with blindness, they fed even with unclean things, till his eyes got the power of vision. Him who is bitten by a mad dog, they fed not with the caul of his liver. But R. Mathia Ben Charash said, "it is allowed;" and again said R. Mathia Ben Charash, "to him who had throat complaint they administered medicine in his mouth on the Sabbath day, since there is uncertainty of life, and all uncertainty of life abrogates the Sabbath."
7. "On whomsoever an old ruin falls, if there be a doubt, whether one be under it or not; if there be doubt, whether he be alive or dead; if there be a doubt, whether he be a foreigner or an Israelite?" "They open over him the heap. If they find him alive, they open fully, but if dead, they leave him."
8. The sin-offering, and the offering for known transgression make atonement. Death and the day of atonement with repentance make atonement. Repentance atones for light transgressions, for commands positive and negative. But grave offences are suspended, till the day of atonement come, and it will atone.
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9. He who said "I will sin and repent—I will sin and repent?" "They did not give him the opportunity of repentance." "I will sin, and the day of atonement shall atone?" "The day of atonement makes no atonement." Transgressions between man and The Place 1 the day of atonement expiates. Transgressions between man and his neighbour, the day of atonement does not expiate, until his companion be reconciled. This R. Eleazar Ben Azariah explained "From all thy sins before the LORD thou shalt be cleansed." Transgressions between man and The Place, the day of atonement expiated. Transgressions between man and his companion, the day of atonement did not expiate, until his companion be reconciled. Said R. Akiba, "Happy are ye, Israel! before whom are ye to be pure? Who will purify you? Your Father in heaven, as is said, 'I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean.' Then said the Fountain of Israel, the LORD, "As the fountain purifies the defiled, so the Holy One, blessed be He, purifies Israel."

Footnotes

133:3 Sandals were, however, allowed where there was fear of serpents and scorpions. Woollen socks might be used.
135:1 i.e. God omnipresent. The Jews in a spirit of reverence use the words "Place" and the "Name" to denote God. In reading they do not now pronounce the word Jehovah, but substitute Adonai for it; and when Jehovah is followed by the word Adonai they then use the word Elohim. The true pronunciation of the Name has been a subject of much contention. It has been variously given, as Yeheveh, Yehveh, Yahveh, Yahavah, Yahaveh, and Yehovah. When it was uttered on the Day of Atonement the worshippers "fell on their faces" in reverence for it (vi. 2). It was spoken for the last time in the Temple by the mouth of Simon the Just. Henceforward, the Gemara says whoever attempts to pronounce it shall have no part in the world to come.
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