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Μάρκος Αυρήλιος

Τρίτη, 4 Δεκεμβρίου 2012

The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, [1878] 15

FROM THE BEREITHA.

TREATISE XVIII.

The Tabernacle.
Heave-Offerings—Dimensions of the Tabernacle—Boards—Bars—Rings of Gold—Overlaying with Gold—Pipes of Gold—Curtains—Threads—Coupling—Taches—Sockets—Vail—Holy of Holies—Holy Place—Sacred Vessels—Cunning work—Court—Bars—Pins—Hangings—The Ark—The Tables of the Law both Whole and Broken—The Staves—The Table of Shew-bread—The Candlestick—Indefinite Expressions—The Altar of Incense—The Altar of Burnt-Offerings—The line for the Sprinkling of Blood—The Laver—Guards—Encampment—Standards—Preparations—Blowing the Trumpet—The March—Signs for Encamping—The Pillar of Cloud—The Shechinah.

CHAPTER I.

Rabbi Judah the Holy, said, there were ten heave-offerings, the heave-offering of the Lord, and the heave-offering of the tithes, of the dough, and of the first-fruits; and the heave-offering of the Nazarite, and the heave-offering of thanksgiving, and the heave-offering of the land, and the heave-offering of Israelites dwelling in Midian, and the heave-offering of the shekels, and the heave-offering of the tabernacle. The heave-offering of the Lord, and the heave-offering of the tithes, and of the dough, and of the first-fruits, and the heave-offering of the Nazarite, and the heave-offering of thanksgiving, were for the priests. The heave-offering of the land was for the priests, the levites, and the Nethinim, 1 and the Sanctuary and Jerusalem. The heave-offering of Midian was for Eleazar the priest, the heave-offering of shekels was for the sockets of the tabernacle, the heave-offering
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of the tabernacle furnished the material of the tabernacle, and the oil for lighting, and the sweet incense, and the garments of the priests, and the garments of the high priest. The length of the tabernacle was thirty cubits, and its breadth was ten cubits, and its height was ten cubits. Rabbi José said, "its length was thirty-one cubits." "How was the tabernacle set up?" "Forty sockets of silver were placed on the north, and forty sockets of silver on the south, and sixteen on the west, and four on the east. These are one hundred sockets. As is said, 1 'An hundred sockets of the hundred talents, a talent for a socket.'" "How were the boards set up?" "Twenty boards were placed on the north, and twenty boards on the south, and eight on the west. On the east there was no board, but there were four pillars of shittim-wood. Upon them the vail was hung. As is said, 2 'thou shalt make a vail,' etc., 'and thou shalt hang it upon four pillars of shittim-wood, overlaid with gold,' etc., and 'thou shalt hang up the vail under the taches.'" And the sockets were made with holes, and these were cut out in the boards below, a quarter from one side and a quarter from the other side, and there was cut out half of it in the middle, and it made two pins like two supports, and they entered into two sockets, as is said, "two sockets under one board for its two tenons." 3 The pins extended from the boards two and two, to every one which was inserted, the positive into the negative, as it is said, 4 "Set in order one against the other." The words of Rabbi Nehemiah, when Rabbi Nehemiah said, "there is no meaning in saying, 'set in order.'" "And what is meant by set in order?" "It is meant that there should be made for them rungs like an Egyptian ladder." There was cut out from the board above a finger breadth from one side, and a finger breadth from the other side, and they were put into the golden ring, that they should not separate one from the other, as is said, "And they shall be coupled together beneath, and they shall be coupled together above the head of it unto one ring." 5 There is no meaning
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in saying, "unto one ring," and what is meant by saying, "unto one ring?" "The place where the bar was put in, and every board had in it two rings of gold, one above, and one below; in them were put in the bars." And there were two upper bars, and two lower (bars) on the south side; the length of each of them was fifteen cubits. It follows that two were in length thirty cubits against twenty boards, and the middle (bar) was in length thirty cubits against twenty boards, which was inserted in the middle of the boards from east to west, as is said, "And the middle bar in the midst of the boards shall reach from end to end." 1 As the boards were made in the south, so the boards were made in the north, but in the west they were not so; but the length of the upper bar and the lower one was six cubits against four boards, and the middle (bar), twelve cubits against eight boards. And the boards, and the bars, and the pillars, and the sockets, the place of the thickness of the boards were overlaid with gold, as is said, "And the boards thou shalt overlay with gold." 2 "The places for the bars," there is no meaning in saying, "places for the bars;" and what is the meaning of saying, "places for the bars?" "The place where the bar entered the boards." "And the bars themselves shall be overlaid with gold." 3 "How was it done?" "Two pipes of gold were introduced—the length of each of them was a cubit and a half; and they were put into the hole of the board, the place where the bars were put in."

Footnotes

334:1 The Nethinim or the "given ones" were added, it is supposed, from amongst the Gibeonites to fill up the deficiencies in the number of Levites who returned from the captivity in Babylon. They were held in low estimation, and were forbidden to intermarry with Israelites.
335:1 Exod. xxxviii. 27.
335:2 xxvi. 31-33.
335:3 xxvi. 19.
335:4 xxvi. 17.
335:5 xxvi. 24.
336:1 Exod. xxvi. 28.
336:2 xxvi. 29.
336:3 xxvi. 29.

CHAPTER II.

"How was the tabernacle covered?" "There were provided ten curtains of blue, of purple, and scarlet, and fine-twined linen." As is said, "Moreover thou shalt make the tabernacle (with) ten curtains of fine-twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet." 4 "Their threads were doubled thirty-two times." The words of Rabbi Nehemiah, when R. Nehemiah said, “thread," i.e., one doubled in two, "twined,"
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i.e., to four, "fine-twined," i.e., to eight. It follows that their threads were doubled thirty-two times." But the Sages say, "thread," i.e., one doubled in two, "twined," i.e., to three, "fine-twined," i.e., to six. It follows that their threads were doubled twenty-four times.” They were coupled in two vails, one of five, and one of five. 1 As is said, "the five curtains shall be coupled together one to another: and (other) five curtains (shall be) coupled one to another," and they were coupled with loops of blue, as is said, 2 "And thou shalt make loops of blue upon the edge of the one curtain from the selvedge in the coupling; and likewise shalt thou make in the uttermost edge of (another) curtain, in the coupling of the second." And they were coupled to fifty taches of gold, as is said, 3 "And thou shalt make fifty taches of gold, and couple the curtains together with the taches; and it shall be one tabernacle." And the taches appeared in the tabernacle as stars in the firmament. The length of the curtains was twenty-eight cubits, as is said, 4 "the length of one curtain (shall be) eight and twenty cubits." Take from them ten cubits for the breadth of the tabernacle, there will remain nine cubits from the one side, and nine cubits from the other side They hung down and covered the boards till they reached the sockets. This teaches that the sockets were one cubit high. And the breadth of the curtains was forty cubits. As is said, 5 "and the breadth of one curtain four cubits." Take from them thirty cubits from the east to the west, which were on the roof of the tabernacle, and ten cubits to the west behind the tabernacle, there are forty.

Footnotes

336:4 xxvi. 1.
337:1 Exod. xxvi. 3.
337:2 xxvi. 4.
337:3 xxvi. 6.
337:4 xxvi. 2.
337:5 xxvi. 2.

CHAPTER III.

There were provided eleven curtains of goats’ hair, and the length of every one of them was thirty cubits, as is said, "And thou shalt make curtains of goats’ (hair) to be a covering upon the tabernacle: eleven curtains shalt thou
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make. The length of one curtain (shall be) thirty cubits." 1 And they were coupled in two vails, one of five, and one of six, as is said, "And thou shalt couple five curtains by themselves, and six curtains by themselves," 2 and they were coupled with fifty loops, as is said, "And he made fifty loops upon the outmost edge of the curtain in the coupling, and fifty loops made he upon the edge of the curtain which coupleth the second." 3 And the loops were coupled to fifty taches of brass, as is said, "And thou shalt make fifty taches of brass, and put the taches into the loops, and couple the tent together that it may be one." 4 The length of the curtains was thirty cubits. Take from them ten cubits for their breadth, there will remain ten cubits from one side, and ten cubits from the other side, as they hung down and covered the boards and the sockets. The breadth of the curtains was forty-four cubits, as is said, "And the breadth of one curtain four cubits; and the eleven curtains shall be all of one measure." 5 Take from them thirty cubits for the length of the tabernacle, and ten cubits behind the tabernacle—these are forty. There was left there one curtain which was doubled in front of the tent, as is said, "and thou shalt double the sixth curtain in the forefront of the tabernacle." 6 Rabbi Judah said, "half of it was doubled in the forefront of the tabernacle, and half of it was hanging behind the tabernacle," as is said, "And the remnant that remaineth of the curtains of the tent, the half curtain that remaineth shall hang over the backside of the tabernacle." 7 There was also provided one great cover of rams’ skins dyed red, its length thirty cubits, and its breadth ten cubits; with it they clothed the tent upon the tabernacle from east to west, as is said, "And thou shalt make a covering for the tent of rams’ skins dyed red, and a covering above of badgers’ skins," 8 and it was made "like patchwork." 9 The words of Rabbi Nehemiah. Rabbi Judah said, "there were two covers—the lower one of rams’ skins dyed red, and the
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upper one of badgers’ skins," as is said, "his covering and the covering of the badgers’ skins that is above upon it." 1

Footnotes

338:1 Exod. xxvi. 7, 8.
338:2 xxvi. 9.
338:3 xxxvi. 17.
338:4 xxvi. 11.
338:5 xxvi. 8.
338:6 xxvi. 9.
338:7 xxvi. 12.
338:8 Some commentators explain these to be "skins of seals" or "dolphins," and others understand the meaning to be a "blue colour."
338:9 Exod. xxvi. 14.
339:1 Numb. iv. 25.

CHAPTER IV.

The vail was woven ten cubits square, and there were made in it four loops, and it was hung on hooks on the tops of the pillars, and it was spread in the third portion of the tabernacle, that there should be from it inwards ten cubits, and from it outwards twenty cubits, as is said, "And thou shalt hang up the vail under the taches." 2 It follows that the place of the Holy of Holies was ten cubits square, and there were put the ark, and the pot of manna, and the pan of anointing oil, and Aaron's rod with its almonds and flowers; and there Aaron entered four times on the day of atonement. Outside the vail were placed the table and candlestick. But the table was on the north, and opposite to it was the candlestick on the south; as is said, "And thou shalt set the table without the vail, and the candlestick over against the table." 3 And as they were placed in the tent of the congregation, so were they placed in the everlasting House. 4 Now the tent of the congregation was in length thirty cubits, and in breadth ten cubits. But the everlasting House was in length sixty cubits, and in breadth twenty cubits. This teaches that the tent of the congregation was one-fourth part of the everlasting House. And as the vail was woven, so was woven the ephod and the breastplate, only in these there was an additional thread of gold; as is said, "And they did beat the gold into thin plates and cut it into wires." 5 As was the weaving of the covering vail, so was the weaving of the covering for the entrance. But the vail was cunning work, as is said, "Thou shalt make the vail of blue and purple," etc.; "cunning work." 6 But the covering of the entrance was needle-work, as is said, "And thou shalt make an hanging for the door of the tent," etc., "of needle-work." 7 The words of R.
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[paragraph continues] Nehemiah. R. Nehemiah usually said, "every place where it is said cunning work (there were) two figures—in the needlework (there was) but one figure only." And the branches of the candlestick were right opposite to the breadth of the table. And the golden altar was placed in the middle of the house, and divided the house, and its half inwards was right opposite to the ark; as is said, "And thou shalt put it before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony before the mercy-seat." 1 From the boards on the south to the branches of the candlestick (there were) two cubits and a half. And from the branches of the candlestick to the table (there were) five cubits. And from the table to the boards on the north (were) two cubits and a half. This teaches that the breadth of the Holy place (was) ten cubits. From the boards on the west to the vail (were) ten cubits. From the vail to the table were five cubits. From the table to the golden altar (were) five cubits. From the golden altar to the boards on the east (were) ten cubits. This teaches that the length of the tabernacle was thirty cubits.

Footnotes

339:2 Exod. xxvi. 33.
339:3 xxvi. 35.
339:4 Or in the "House of dispensations."
339:5 Exod. xxxix. 3.
339:6 xxvi. 31.
339:7 xxvi. 36.
340:1 Exod. xxx. 6.

CHAPTER V.

The court of the tabernacle was in length one hundred cubits, and in breadth fifty cubits, as is said, "And thou shalt make the court of the tabernacle for the south side, etc., an hundred cubits, 2 and likewise for the north side an hundred cubits," as is said, "And likewise for the north side in length there shall be hangings of an hundred cubits long." 3 And on the west fifty cubits, as is said, "On the west side shall be hangings of fifty cubits." 4 And on the east fifty cubits, as is said, "On the east side eastward shall be fifty cubits." 5 Take front them fifty cubits for hangings, as is said, "The hangings of one side of the gate shall be fifteen cubits," 6 etc. "And for the other side," etc. From both sides the hangings on the south to the tent were twenty cubits, and the tent
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was ten cubits broad, and from the tent to the hangings on the north were twenty cubits. This teaches that the breadth (of the court) was fifty cubits. From the hangings on the west to the tent were twenty cubits, and the tent was thirty cubits long; and from the tent to the hangings on the east, there were fifty cubits. This teaches that its length was an hundred cubits, as is said, "The length of the court shall be an hundred cubits, and the breadth fifty everywhere." 1 Rabbi José said there is no meaning in saying "fifty everywhere," and what is meant by saying "fifty everywhere?" "That is in front of the tent." This teaches that its length was one hundred cubits, and its breadth fifty cubits. But you could not know the breadth of the hangings till you know the height of the court, as he (Moses) said, "And the height five cubits;" 1 as the height was five cubits, so was the breadth five cubits. "How was the court set up?" Twenty sockets of brass were put on the north side, and twenty on the south side, and there was a pillar in every one of them. And there were beams, and a ring was fastened in their middle, and the beams were fastened with ropes and pillars; and the length of every beam was six handbreadths, and its breadth was three (handbreadths). And the ring was hung on the hook in the pillar; and the hanging was rolled on it like the sail of a ship. It follows that the hanging extended from the pillar two cubits and a half on one side, and two cubits and a half on the other side; and so with the second pillar. This teaches that between each pillar there were five cubits. The beams were coupled with ropes and pillars, and they were coupled in the pins of brass; and as there were pins to the tabernacle, so were there pins to the court, as is said, "All the vessels of the tabernacle in all the service thereof, and all the pins thereof, and all the pins of the court, shall be of brass." 2 But you could not know how much space there was front the hangings to the entrance of the court, till he said, "And the hangings of the court, and the hanging for the door of the gate of the court, which is by the tabernacle, and by the altar." 3 As between the tabernacle
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and the altar there were ten cubits, so from the hangings to the entrance of the court there were ten cubits. But you could not know how high was the entrance of the court, till he said, "And for the gate of the court shall be an hanging of twenty cubits," in length and height. In breadth it was five cubits. "There was no meaning in saying five cubits, and what is the meaning of saying five cubits?" "To instruct thee that its length was ten cubits, and its breadth five cubits." As was the entrance of the tent, so was the entrance of the court. As was the entrance of the court, so was the entrance of the sanctuary. As was the height of the entrance of the sanctuary, so was the breadth of the entrance of the porch. "The length of the court shall be an hundred cubits, and the breadth of it fifty everywhere." 1 The oral law says, "Take fifty and surround them with fifty." 2 Hence said Rabbi José, the son of Rabbi Judah, 3 "an enclosed space which can contain two seahs (of sown grain) as the court of the tabernacle, is lawful for carrying burdens on the Sabbath day."

Footnotes

340:2 xxvii. 9.
340:3 xxvii. 11.
340:4 xxvii. 12.
340:5 xxvii. 13.
340:6 xxxviii. 14, 15.
341:1 Exod. xxvii. 18.
341:2 xxvii. 19.
341:3 Numb. iv. 26.
342:1 Exod. xxvii. 18.
342:2 Some explain this to mean "multiply fifty with one hundred" (Aruch); others think that the measurement is to be made with a rope of fifty cubits. (Eruvin.)
342:3 Some read "in the name of," etc.

CHAPTER VI.

The Ark which Moses made in the desert was in length two cubits and a half, and in breadth one cubit and a half, and in height one cubit and a half, as is said, "And they shall make an ark of shittim wood, two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof." 4 R. Meier said, "with a cubit containing six handbreadths—thus they make fifteen handbreadths. Take from them twelve handbreadths for the breadth of the tables, and two handbreadths for the place where the roll of the Law lay, and half a handbreadth from either side for the thickness of the ark. And the breadth of the ark was nine handbreadths. Take from them six handbreadths for the length of the tables,
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and for the place where the roll of the Law lay, two handbreadths, that it should not be pressed going in and out, and half a handbreadth on either side for the thickness of the ark." R. Judah said, "with a cubit containing five handbreadths," thus there were twelve handbreadths and a half, and, four tables lay in it—two perfect, and two broken. And the length of each table was six handbreadths, and their breadth six, and their thickness three. Take from them twelve handbreadths for the breadth of the tables, and a fingerbreadth on either side for the thickness of the ark. And the breadth of the ark was seven handbreadths and a half. Take from them six handbreadths for the length of the tables, and one handbreadth for the place where the handles (pillars) lay; and on it the explanation of the prophets is, "King Solomon made himself a chariot of the wood of Lebanon. He made the pillars thereof of silver." 1 And (there was) a fingerbreadth on either side for the thickness of the ark, but the roll of the Law was put on the side, as is said, "And put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the LORD." 2 And so with the Philistines, he said, "And put the jewels of gold, which ye return for a trespass-offering, in a coffer by the side thereof." 3 R. Judah the son of Lakish, said, "there were two arks, one which abode in the encampment, and one which went forth with them to war, and in it were the broken tables," as is said, "And the ark of the covenant of the Lord went." 4 But the one with them in the encampment contained the roll of the Law. That is what is written, "Nevertheless the ark of the covenant of the Lord; and Moses departed not out of the camp." 5 And so he said with regard to Saul, "And Saul said unto Ahiah, bring hither the ark of God." 6 And so of Uriah it is said, "The ark, and Israel, and Judah abide in tents." 7 But the ark of the covenant went not forth to war, save once only, as is said, "So the people sent to Shiloh, that they might bring from thence the ark of the covenant of the Lord of hosts." 8
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[paragraph continues] R. Judah said, "there was nothing in the ark save the tables of the covenant only," as is said, "There was nothing in the ark save the two tables of stone." 1

Footnotes

342:4 Exod. xxv. 10.
343:1 Song of Solomon, iii. 9, 10.
343:2 Deut. xxxi. 26.
343:3 1 Sam. vi. 8.
343:4 Num. x. 33.
343:5 Num. xiv. 44.
343:6 1 Sam. xiv. 18
343:7 2 Sam. xi. 11.
343:8 1 Sam. iv. 4.

CHAPTER VII.

"How did Bezaleel make the ark?" “He made three boxes, two of gold and one of wood. He put the wooden one inside the golden one, and the golden one inside the wooden one, and covered the upper edge with gold; as is said, “And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold: within and without shalt thou overlay it.” 2 "And what is the meaning of saying, 'thou shalt overlay it?'" "It means that he covered the upper edges (with) gold." The golden mercy-seat was placed above upon it; as is said, "And thou shalt put the mercy-seat above upon the ark." 3 And four rings of gold were fastened in it, two on the north and two on the south, and in them the staves were put, and they were never moved from thence; as is said, "The staves shall be in the rings of the ark; they shall not be taken from it." 4 Even though Solomon made the pattern of all the vessels, the pattern of the ark he did not make; as is said, "And all the elders of Israel came, and the priests took up the ark." 5 The ark was placed in the midst of the House, and divided the House ten cubits by ten cubits. And two cherubs of gold stood on their feet on the ground. From the wall to the cherub there were five cubits, and from the cherub to the wall five cubits. "Where is it mentioned, that as soon as the priests brought in the ark the staves were drawn out, and they reached to the vail, and they touched the entrance?" As is said, "And they drew out the staves, that the ends of the staves were seen out in the holy place before the oracle." 6 For that reason the doors of the Holy of Holies were never closed. "And they were not seen without." 7 “It is not possible to say that they were not seen, since it was already said “they were seen.” Neither is it possible to say that
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they were seen, since it is already said "they were not seen." "How is it?" "They were pushing out in the vail, and were seen in the sanctuary like the two paps of a woman." "And from whence (do we know) that they were drawn out from the inside?" As is said, "And they were not seen without." There we learned that they were drawn out from the inside. And from thence (we learned) that they were drawn out to the outside, as is said, "And the ends of the staves were seen." And where thou sayest that as the staves were drawn out, so were drawn out the wings of the cherubim, and they covered the ark, and overshadowed the house from above, as is said, "And the cherubim covered the ark and the staves thereof, above." 1 "And where was the ark concealed?" Rabbi Judah, the son of Lachish, said, "in its place in the house of the Holy of Holies, as is said, 'And there they are unto this day.'" 2 But the Sages say, "in the chamber of the wood." "And who concealed it?" Rabbi Judah the Holy said, "Josiah concealed it, as it is said; 'And said unto the Levites that taught all Israel, which were holy unto the Lord, Put the holy ark in the house which Solomon the son of David, King of Israel, did build; it shall not be a burden upon your shoulders.'3 He said to them, "it shall not be carried captive with you to Babylon, that you should bear it upon your shoulders." Rabbi Eleazar said, "it went to Babylon, as is said, 'Nothing shall be left, saith the Lord,' 4 nothing, not even the words in it." The house of the Holy of Holies, which Solomon made for it, had a wall, entrance, and doors, as is said, "And the temple and the sanctuary had two doors." 5 But in the latter house there was no wall, only two boards were there, and the length of each one was a cubit and a half. And two vails of gold were there, spread over them from above, and it was called the place of Partition. 6

Footnotes

344:1 Kings viii. 9.
344:2 Exod. xxv. 11.
344:3 xxv. 21.
344:4 xxv. 15.
344:5 1 Kings viii. 3.
344:6 viii. 8.
344:7 Ibid.
345:1 1 Kings viii. 7, 8.
345:2 viii. 8.
345:3 2 Chron. xxxv. 3.
345:4 2 Kings xx. 17.
345:5 Ezek. xli. 23.
345:6 Some commentators interpret Traksin to mean "place of doubting," as zealots continually disputed the exact division between the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies.

CHAPTER VIII.

THE TABLE which Moses made in the wilderness was in length two cubits, and its breadth one cubit, and its height was one cubit and a half, as is said, "Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood, two cubits shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof." 1 Rabbi Judah said, "the cubit (contained) five handbreadths, thus there are ten handbreadths." From thence the Sages said, "the table was in length ten handbreadths, and in breadth five handbreadths. And the shew-bread was in length ten handbreadths, and in breadth five. The length of the shew-bread was placed against the breadth of the table. It extended over two handbreadths and a half on either side. It follows that its length quite filled the breadth of the table." Rabbi Meier said, "the table was in length twelve handbreadths, and in breadth six handbreadths. And the shew-bread was in length ten (handbreadths), and in breadth five. And its length was placed against the breadth of the table. It extended over two handbreadths on either side; and there was an opening of two handbreadths in the middle, that the air might blow through them (the loaves)." Aba Shaul said, "they put there two cups of incense of the shew-bread." The Sages said to him, "and is it not already said, 'And thou shalt put pure frankincense upon each row.'" 2 He replied to them, "and is it not already said, 'And by him shall be the tribe of Manasseh?'" 3 Although Solomon made ten tables, and all of them were lawful for service, as is said, "He made also ten tables, and placed them in the temple, five on the right side, and five on the left." 4 "If thou sayest five on the south, and five on the north, is not a table on the south worthless?" But what is the meaning of saying, "five on the right and five on the left?" "Five to the right of the table
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of Moses, and five to the left of the table of Moses, even though he did not arrange the shew-bread, save for the table of Moses only, as is said, 'And the table whereupon the shew-bread was.'" 1 Rabbi José, the son of Rabbi Judah, said, "all the tables were arranged for shew-bread as is said, 'And the tables whereon the shew-bread was set.'" 2

Footnotes

346:1 Exod. xxv. 23.
346:2 Lev. xxiv. 7.
346:3 Numb. ii. 20. ‏על‎ therefore means "by" or "next," as well as "upon."
346:4 2 Chron. iv. 8.
347:1 1 Kings vii. 48.
347:2 2 Chron. iv. 19.

CHAPTER IX.

THE CANDLESTICK which Moses made in the wilderness was wrought from gold, and required hammering, and required knops and flowers, as is said, "And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold; of beaten work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same." 3 "Do I hear that he shall make separate members and join them to it?" "The teaching says, that 'they shall be of the same.'" "Whence know we that it extends to the light?" "The teaching says, 'Thou shalt make.'" "I am of opinion that it should be extended to the bowls, knops, and flowers. The teaching says 'it,' and what dost thou see to extend it to the light, and withhold it from the bowls, the knops, and the flowers?" "Because the verse extends and withholds, (therefore) I extend (it to) the lights that they should be made with it, and I withhold the bowls, the knops, and the flowers, that they should not be made with it." "Whence know we to extend (it to) the tongs and snuff-dishes?" "The teaching says, 'thou shalt make.'" "I am of opinion to extend (it to) the snuffers, and the tweezers." "The teaching says, 'it,' and what dost thou see to extend (it to) the tongs and snuff-dishes, and to withhold (it from) the snuffers?" "Because the verse extends and withholds. I extend (it to) the tongs and snuff-dishes, since they are used with it. And I withhold (it from) the snuffers and tweezers, since they are not used with it." As it was made of gold, it required hammering; when it was not of gold it did not require hammering. When it was made of gold it
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required bowls, knops, and flowers; when it was not of gold it did not require bowls, knops, and flowers. When it was made of gold it required a talent; when it was not of gold it did not require a talent. Rabbi Joshua the son of Korcha said, "it (the candlestick) was made of a talent, but the lights, and the tongs, and the snuff-dishes, were not from the talent," as is said, "Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it." 1 "And what do I establish?" "That all these vessels were vessels of pure gold. But the trumpets which Moses made in the wilderness were made of silver only, as is said, 'Make thee two trumpets of silver.'" 2

Footnotes

347:3 Exod. xxv. 31.
348:1 Exod. xxv. 39.
348:2 Numb. x. 2.

CHAPTER X.

"How did Bezaleel make the candlestick?" "He made it from an ingot of gold, and it was like a beam. And above and below he made bowls, knops, and flowers, and drew out from it two branches, one on either side, and from it he drew out two other branches, one on either side, and again drew out two branches, one on either side, as is said, 'And six branches shall come out of the sides of it.'" 3 But we could not understand the hammering of the bowls, until it be said, "And in the candlesticks shall be four bowls made like unto almonds with their knops and their flowers." 4 Aisi, the son of Judah, said, “there are five expressions in the Law, and they have no fixed meaning. These are they, “accepted,” 5 “cursed,” 6 “to-morrow,” 7 “made like unto almonds,” 8 “and will rise up.” 9 "If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted?" or; "thou shalt be accepted even if thou doest not well." "Cursed be their anger for it was fierce," or; "for in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they houghed cursed oxen." "To-morrow I will stand" or "go out, fight with Amalek to-morrow." "Made like unto almonds with their knops, and their flowers," or "four bowls made like unto almonds." "And this people
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will rise up," or, "thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, and thou shalt rise up." These are the five expressions in the Law which have no fixed meaning. Aisa, the son of Akbia, said, "it happened once to be more (than a talent by) a dinar of gold, and it was brought into the crucible eighty times." The body of the candlestick was eighteen handbreadths, the feet and the flowers were three handbreadths, and two handbreadths were smooth, and one handbreadth was for the bowl, a knop and a flower, and two handbreadths were smooth, and one handbreadth a knop, and two branches proceeded from it, one on either side. And two handbreadths were smooth, and one handbreadth a knop, and two branches proceeded from it, one on either side, and two handbreadths were smooth, and one handbreadth a knop, and two branches proceeded from it on either side. There remained three handbreadths, in which were the bowls, the knops, and the flowers, as is said "Three bowls made like unto almonds with a knop and a flower in one branch." 1 It follows that the bowls were twenty-two, and the knops eleven, and the flowers nine. "The bowls, to what were they like?" "To cups of Alexandria." "The knops, to what were they like?" "To the apples of pine-trees." 2 "The flowers to what were they like?" "To the flowers on the pillars of the temple." It is found that you learn that there exists in the candlestick difficulty and forgetfulness more than in all the other vessels. "And whence know we that OMNIPRESENCE showed to Moses, the vessels ready, and the candlestick ready?" As it is said, "see and make them according to their patterns." 3 Although Solomon made ten candlesticks and all of them were lawful for service, as is said, "And he made ten candlesticks of gold according to heir form, and set them in the temple, five on the right hand and five on the left." 4 If you say, five on the south and five on the north, is not the candlestick on the north worthless? "And what is meant by saying, five on the right hand and five on the left?" "Five on the right side of the candlestick of Moses, and five on the left side of the
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candlestick of Moses, even though they lighted the candlestick of Moses only, as is said, 'And the candlestick of gold, with the lamps thereof, to burn every evening,'" 1 Rabbi José, the son of Rabbi Judah, said, "they were all lighted," as is said, "Moreover the candlesticks with their lamps, that they should burn after the manner, before the oracle of pure gold; and the flowers, and the lamps, and the tongs made he of gold, and that perfect gold." 2 All these completed the golden one of Moses. Those on the west and east flamed in front of the middle light, as is said, "The seven lamps shall give light over against the candlestick." 3 From thence Rabbi Nathan said, "the middle one is the most honourable." The seven lamps flamed alike, and their lamps were equal, and they resembled each other. "How did they snuff it?" "They removed the snuff from the candlestick and deposited it in the tent, and rubbed it with a sponge." "It follows that many priests were busied on one lamp." The words of Rabbi José. But the Sages say, "they did not remove the lamps from their places; they, only removed the snuff from the candlestick, as is said, He shall order the lamps upon the pure candlestick.'" 4

Footnotes

348:3 Exod. xxv. 32.
348:4 xxv. 34.
348:5 Gen. iv. 7.
348:6 xlix. 7.
348:7 Exod. xvii. 9.
348:8 xxv. 34.
348:9 Deut. xxxi. 16.
349:1 Exod. xxv. 33.
349:2 Or "egg shaped, oval."
349:3 Exod. xxv. 40.
349:4 2 Chron. iv. 7.
350:1 2 Chron. xiii. 11.
350:2 iv. 20, 21.
350:3 Numb. viii. 2.
350:4 Lev. xxiv. 4.

CHAPTER XI.

THE ALTAR OF INCENSE was in length a cubit, and in breadth a cubit, and in height two cubits, as is said, "And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon; of shittim-wood shalt thou make it. A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof: four square shall it be: and two cubits shall be the height thereof: the horns thereof shall be of the same." 5 And it was all overlaid with gold, as is said, "And thou shalt overlay it with gold." 6 This altar had three names, the altar of incense, the altar of gold, the inner altar. The Altar of Burnt-Offerings was in length five cubits, and in breadth five cubits, and in height three cubits, as is said, "And he
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made the altar of burnt-offering of shittim-wood: five cubits was the length thereof, and five cubits the breadth thereof; it was four square; and three cubits the height thereof." 1 The words of Rabbi Meier. To him said Rabbi José, "from hearing what is said five by five do we not know that it is four square? What is the meaning of saying four square?" "It is superfluous, save for identification in pronouncing with regard to it an equal decision. It is said here four square, and there four square." "What four square is meant there?" "That its height is double its breadth, even the four square mentioned here means that its height is double its breadth." Rabbi Maier said to him, "if it be according to thy words, it follows that the altar is higher than the curtains." Rabbi Josh answered him, "and is it not already said, 'And the hangings of the court, and the hanging for the door of the gate of the court, which is by the tabernacle, and by the altar round about.'" 2 As the tabernacle was ten cubits broad, so the altar of burnt-offerings was ten cubits broad. A painted line girdled it in the middle to divide between the blood (sprinkled) above, and the blood (sprinkled) below. The painted line and downwards was five cubits. The foundation was a cubit. And three cubits was the compass, and the circuit was a cubit, and there they put the blood sprinkled below. The painted line and upwards was five cubits,—a cubit the horns, and three cubits the compass, and one cubit the circuit. And there they put the blood which was sprinkled above. And the blood intended to be sprinkled on the painted line and downwards, if it were put on the painted line and upwards, was worthless. And the blood that was intended to be sprinkled above the painted line, if it were put on the painted line and downwards, was worthless. The altar which Moses made in the wilderness was in height ten cubits, and the one which Solomon made was in height ten cubits, and the one which the children of the captivity made was in height ten cubits, and the one prepared for the Future, its height is ten cubits. The altar of burnt-offerings
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was placed in the midst of the court (with) its ascent on the south, with the laver on the west, with the slaughterhouse on the north, and all the Israelites to the east, as is said, "And all the congregation drew near and stood before the Lord." 1 This altar had three names, the altar of burnt-offering, the altar of brass, the outer altar.

Footnotes

350:5 Exod. xxx. 1.
350:6 xxx. 3.
351:1 Exod. xxxviii. 1.
351:2 Numb. iv. 26.
352:1 Lev. ix. 5.

CHAPTER XII.

Moses made one LAVER, as is said, "Thou shalt also make a laver of brass." 2 Solomon made ten lavers, as is said, "He made also ten lavers, and put five on the right hand, and five on the left, to wash." 3 "There is no meaning in saying 'five on the right hand, and five on the left,' and what is the meaning of saying 'five on the right hand, and five on the left?'" "Five on the right of the laver of Moses, and five on the left of the laver of Moses." Solomon added to it when he made the sea, as is said, "And he made a molten sea, ten cubits from the one brim to the other; it was round all about, and his height was five cubits; and a line of thirty cubits did compass it round about. And it was an handbreadth thick, and the brim thereof was wrought like the brim of a cup, with flowers of lilies, it contained two thousand baths." 4 It is not possible to say "two thousand," since before it is said "three thousand," 5 and it is not possible to say "three thousand," since before it is said "two thousand." "How can it be?" "Two thousand liquid make three thousand dry measure." But you don't know how much is the bath until it be said, "The ephah and the bath contain one measure," 6 "for ten baths are an homer." Allow ten baths for every cur—there are two hundred curs. Subtract from them fifty curs, and allow fifty square, there are one hundred and fifty cleansing pools; since every pool contains forty seahs." "And from whence do we know that every pool contains forty seahs?" "As is
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said, 'And bathe his flesh in water,' 1 water to cover all his flesh." "And how much is it?" "A square cubit, in height three cubits." From thence the Sages judged the measure of a pool to be forty seahs. "And how can it contain one hundred and fifty cleansing-pools, if thou shalt say it was all round?" "It could not contain them." "If thou shalt say it was all square?" "It therefore contained more." But the three lowest cubits were square; allow for ten cubits square, there are an hundred cubits. Allow for an hundred square; there are an hundred cleansing-pools. The two highest cubits were round. Allow for ten cubits square; there are seventy-five cubits. Allow for seventy-five square; there are an hundred and fifty. Allow for fifty square; there are fifty cleansing-pools; since the square exceeds the round by a fourth. "And whence do we know that the square exceeds the round by a fourth?" "As is said, 'Ten cubits from brim to brim, round in compass, and a line of thirty cubits did compass it round about.'" 2 This teaches that the square exceeds the round by a fourth. "And whence do we know that it was round above?" "As is said, 'And it was an handbreadth thick, and the brim thereof was wrought like the brim of a cup.'" "And whence know we that it was square below?" "As is said, 'It stood upon twelve oxen, three looking towards the north, and three looking towards the west, and three looking towards the south, and three looking towards the east.'" 3 And what is meant by saying "looking towards" four times; but that when one entered the temple, he looked towards the right; when he entered into the court, he looked towards the right; when he entered the Mountain of the House, he looked towards the right; when the priest went up to the top of the altar, he looked towards the right. "And under it was the similitude of oxen, which did compass it round about, ten in a cubit, compassing the sea round about. Two rows of oxen." 4 It follows that (there were) four rows of the heads of oxen, which served for the four sides, as is said, "And the similitude of oxen, two rows of oxen were cast
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when it was cast." 1 And it was all cast even from the feet of the ox.

Footnotes

352:2 Exod. xxx. 18.
352:3 2 Chron. iv. 6.
352:4 1 Kings vii. 23, 26.
352:5 2 Chron. iv. 5.
352:6 Ezek. xlv. 11, 14.
353:1 Lev. xv. 13.
353:2 2 Chron. iv. 2.
353:3 iv. 4.
353:4 iv. 3.
354:1 The Jerusalem Talmud states that the water poured through the feet of the oxen, and that this was the well of Etham.

CHAPTER XIII.

"How did the Levites guard the tabernacle?" "The family of Kohath watched on the south, as is said, 'The families of the sons of Kohath shall pitch on the side of the tabernacle southward.' 2 And they were overseers of the vessels of the ark, as is said, 'And their charge shall be the ark, and the table, and the candlestick, and the altars, and the vessels of the sanctuary wherewith they minister, and the hanging and all the service thereof.' 3 Outside of them were the three tribes of Reuben, Simeon, Levi. The family of Gershon watched in the west, as is said, 'The families of the Gershonites shall pitch behind the tabernacle westward.' 4 And they were intrusted with all the vessels of the tabernacle, as is said, 'And they shall bear the curtains of the tabernacle, and the tabernacle of the congregation.' 5 Outside of them were the three tribes of Ephraim, and Manasseh, and Benjamin. The family of Merari watched on the north, as is said, 'And the chief of the house of the father of the families of Merari was Zuriel the son of Abihail: these shall pitch on the side of the tabernacle northward.' 6 And they were intrusted with the taches, and boards, and bars, and pillars, and the sockets of the tabernacle, as is said, 'And under the custody and charge of the sons of Merari shall be the boards of the tabernacle, and the bars thereof, and the pillars thereof, and the sockets thereof.' 7 And outside of them were the three tribes of Dan, Asher, and Naphtali. On the east were Moses, Aaron, and their families, as is said, 'But those that encamp before the tabernacle toward the east, even before the tabernacle of the congregation eastward, shall be Moses and Aaron and his sons.' 8 And
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outside of them were the three tribes of Judah, Issachar, and Zebulon. The whole encampment of Israel was twelve miles. The standard of Judah was four miles, and the encampment of the Levites, and the encampment of the SHECHINAH, four miles. The standard of Reuben was four miles. The standard of Ephraim was four miles. The encampment of the Levites and the encampment of the SHECHINAH was four miles. And the encampment of Dan was four miles. It follows that the four corners of the tabernacle were four encampments for service on every side, as is said, 'Then the tabernacle of the congregation shall set forward with the camp of the Levites in the midst of the camp; as they encamp so shall they set forward, every man in his place by their standards.' 1 So soon as Israel set forward, the pillar of cloud which was standing still rolled up and spread out over the children of Judah like a kind of beam. The (trumpet) sounded, and blew an alarm, and sounded, and the standard of Judah moved forward first, as is said, 'In the first place went the standard of the camp of the children of Judah according to their armies.' 2 At once Aaron and his sons entered (the Tabernacle) and took down the vail, and with it they covered the ark, as is said, 'And when the camp setteth forward, Aaron shall come and his sons, and they shall take down the covering vail, and cover the ark of testimony with it.' 3 The (trumpet) sounded, and blew an alarm, and sounded. And the standard of the encampment of Reuben set forward. At once the sons of Gershon, and the sons of Merari entered, and took down the tabernacle, and loaded it on the waggon. And they set up the tabernacle before the sons of Kohath came, as is said, 'And the Kohathites set forward, bearing the sanctuary; and the other did set up the tabernacle against they came.' 4 And the trumpet sounded, and blew an alarm, and sounded, and the standard of Ephraim moved forward; the children of Kohath entered and took down the holy vessels, and loaded them on their shoulders, as is said, 'And when Aaron and his sons have made an end of covering the sanctuary and
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all the vessels of the sanctuary, as the camp is to set forward; after that the sons of Kohath shall come to bear it.' 1 The (trumpet) sounded, and blew an alarm, and sounded. And the standard of Dan moved forward, as is said, 'And the standard of the camp of the children of Dan set forward.' 2 It follows that two standards were in front, and two standards were in the rear, and the encampment of the Levites, and the encampment of the SHECHINAH was in the middle, as is said, 'Then the tabernacle of the congregation shall set forward with the camp of the Levites in the midst of the camp.' 3 And as they encamped, so they set forward, as is said, 'As they encamp, so shall they set forward.' Israel set forward by three commands, by command of the HOLY BLESSED ONE, by command of Moses, and by command of the trumpets." "Whence know we the command of the HOLY BLESSED ONE?" "As is said, 'At the commandment of the Lord, the children of Israel journeyed, and at the commandment of the Lord they pitched,'" 4 etc. "By the commandment of the Lord by the hand of Moses." 5 "By commandment of Moses—how?" "Moses said in the evening, 'early in the morning you must go forward.'" At once the Israelites began to gather their cattle, and prepared their furniture for the march. "By commandment of the trumpets whence know we it?" "As is said, 'Make thee two trumpets of silver, etc., that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps.'" 6 "How?" "The trumpets sounded, blew an alarm, and sounded three blasts for every standard." Rabbi Judah said, "there were three blasts for every tribe."

Footnotes

354:2 Numb. iii. 29.
354:3 iii. 31.
354:4 iii. 23.
354:5 iv. 25.
354:6 iii. 35.
354:7 iii. 36.
354:8 iii. 38.
355:1 Numb. ii. 17.
355:2 x. 14.
355:3 iv. 5.
355:4 x. 21.
356:1 Numb. iv. 15.
356:2 x. 22.
356:3 ii. 17.
356:4 ix. 18.
356:5 ix. 23.
356:6 x. 2.

CHAPTER XIV.

When Israel was to encamp, the pillar of cloud rose up and spread out over the children of Judah like a kind of booth, and it covered the tent outwards, and filled the tabernacle inwards; as is said, "Then a cloud covered the
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tent of the congregation, and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle." 1 And that was one of the clouds of glory, which served the Israelites in the wilderness forty years. One on the right hand, and one on the left, and one before them, and one behind them. And one over them, and a cloud dwelling in their midst (and the cloud, the SHECHINAH which was in the Tent), and the pillar of cloud which moved before them, making low before them the high (places), and making high before them the low (places), and killing serpents and scorpions, and burning thorns and briers, and guiding them in the straight way. Rabbi Simon, the son of José, said, "during the forty years, when the Israelites were in the wilderness, none of them had need of the light of the sun by day, nor the light of the moon by night. When it became reddish they knew that the sun had set, and when it became whitish they knew that the sun rose. And when one looked into a barrel, he knew what was in it; and into a pitcher, and he knew what was in it, by reason of the cloud, the SHECHINAH in their midst," as is said, "For the cloud of the Lord was upon the tabernacle by day, and fire was on it by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel throughout all their journey." 2 And so it is prepared to come in the future: as is said, "Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee." "The sun shall be no more thy light by day; neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but the Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light." "Thy sun shall no more go down; neither shall thy moon withdraw itself; for the Lord shall be thine everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning shall be ended." 3 "From whence did the SHECHINAH speak with Moses?" “Rabbi Nathan said, “from the altar of incense,” as is said, "And thou shalt put it before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony, etc.
WHERE I WILL MEET WITH THEE." 4
Rabbi Simon, the son of Yochai, said, "beside the altar of incense," as is said, "And thou shalt beat some of it very
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small, and put of it before the testimony in the tabernacle of the congregation,
WHERE I WILL MEET WITH THEE." 1
The disciples of Rabbi Ishmael said, "beside the altar of burnt-offering," as is said, "This shall be a continual burnt-offering throughout your generations at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, before the Lord,
WHERE I WILL MEET YOU." 2

Footnotes

357:1 Exod. xl. 34.
357:2 xl. 38.
357:3 Isa. lx. 1, 19, 20.
357:4 Exod. xxx. 6.
358:1 Exod. xxx. 36.
358:2 xxix. 42.
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