In the Old Testament "Hadad," without the addition of a qualifying word (verb), occurs as a personal noun, designating the Edomites. It is probable that where "Hadad" is found alone the second element has dropped out, and "Hadad" must be regarded as denoting the deity (Schröder, "Die Phönizische Sprache," 1869, p. 254; Nestle, "Die Israelitischen Eigennamen," 1876, pp. 114-116; Kerber, "Die Religionsgesch. Bedeutung der Hebräischen Eigennamen," 1897, p. 10). Variants of this name are "Hadar," "Hadad" (Wellhausen, l.c. p. 55), "Haddam" (?) in Himyaritic inscriptions ("C. I. S." Him. et Sab. No. 55), and "Hadu," in Nabatæan (G. Hoffmann, in "Zeit. für Assyr." xi. 228).
Earlier Interpretations. "Hadad" combined with "Rimmon" is found in Zech. xii. 11; the context of the verse shows that the mourning of, or at (see below), Hadadrimmon represented the acme of desperate grief. The older exegetes agree in regarding "Hadadrimmon" as denominating a locality in the neighborhood of Megiddo. The lamentations, of Sisera's mother (Judges v. 28), and the assumed weeping over Ahaziah, King of Judah, who died at Megiddo (II Kings ix. 27), have been adduced in explanation of the allusion. The most favored explanation is that given by the Peshiṭta, that the plaint referred to was for King Josiah, who had fallen at Megiddo (II Kings xxiii. 29). The Targum to Zech. xii. 11 combines two allusions, one to Ahab, supposed to have met his death at the hands of a Syrian by the name of "Hadadrimmon," and another to Josiah's fall at Megiddo. These various references to public lamentations over one or the other Biblical personage have been generally abandoned by modern scholars. Following Hitzig, it is now held that Zechariah had in mind a public mourning for the god Hadadrimmon, identified with the Phenician Adonis (Ezek. viii. 14, "Tammuz"), whose yearly death was the occasion for lament. This theory, plausible on the whole, is, however, open to objections arising from the text of the verse in Zechariah.
A Thunder-God. Hittite Representation of Hadad.